In christianity protestants are Sola scriptura.
Is there a similar muslim group who follow the same kind of belief that the Quran is all that needed, and disregard other texts (such as Hadith)?
Yes, they are called Quranists. They are not one sect but individuals following the ideology that Qur'an is sufficient. Ghulam Ahmed Pervez (1903-1985) and Abdullah Chakralawi (d: 1930) have been main proponents and pioneers of this view in Indian Subcontinent. Their books are written in Urdu language and can be found here.