Arabic writing can be also understood without diacritics. Was the Quran ever written without diacritics?


The oldest manuscripts of the Qur'an are only very sparsely pointed, like this one:


If they do have vowels, these are indicated by red dots above or below the letters, not with the later standard vowel signs, like this one:


(The second of these has some "modern" vowel signs added later in black ink.)

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