According to Christianity, the garden of Eden where Adam and Eve were created is/was on Earth. Does Islam also believe that Adam and Eve were created on Earth, or where they created in a paradise which is not on Earth?
As Salam Alikum,
According to Islam, Adam and Eve were sent down to earth
after they disobeyed Allah(swt), by eating the forbidden fruit. As we get from the Quran
“Get you down (upon the earth), all of you together(Adam, Eve and Iblis), from Paradise/Garden, some of you are an enemy to some others. Then, if there comes to you guidance from Me, whoever follows My Guidance shall neither go astray, nor fall into distress and misery.” (Quran 20:123)
“‘On earth will be a dwelling place for you and an enjoyment, for a time.’ He said: ‘Therein you shall live and therein you shall die, and from it you shall be brought out (resurrected).’” (Quran 7:24–25)
The word Earth in 7:24 is 'Al-Ard', so the place where they stayed, was not the Earth.
Also from Hadith, we get
“The best of days on which the sun has risen is Friday. One this day Adam was created, and on this day he was descended to earth.” (Saheeh Al-Bukhari)
Since it says 'descended to earth', if they were already living on earth how can they descend there itself? To tell a thing/person to descend, is only possible when that thing/person, is currently at a higher place.
Hence, the garden where Adam and Eve were living, wasn't on the Earth we live on today.