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Sahih International (translation)

Indeed, Allah is not timid to present an example - that of a mosquito or what is smaller than it. And those who have believed know that it is the truth from their Lord. But as for those who disbelieve, they say, "What did Allah intend by this as an example?" He misleads many thereby and guides many thereby. And He misleads not except the defiantly disobedient.*

What exactly is the meaning of this ayah? Is the supposed question 'Why do mosquitos or that which is smaller (bacteria, viruses etc) exist?' I looked into this a few years ago when I was fist considering Islam (I have now converted, Alhamdulillah) and all I could find when I looked into it all that I could find were opinions and guess work of people who didn't seem to have studied the Quran or hadith, and had nothing to back up their claims.

Is there a conclusive (perhaps majority) scholarly opinion on this ayah? How can I understand it better?

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    I am not sure, but I think it is referring to this: quran.com/22/73 – user44 Aug 4 '12 at 1:25
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    Note that the translation presented misses a meaning of the words بعوضة فما فوقها a mosquito or what is higher then (or above it) as apparently some scholars have found out that even on something so small as a mosquito there can be some kind living on it like a البق bedbug/bug as this image kaheel7.com/ar/images/stories/12341234%282%29.jpg may indicate and Allah knows best! – Medi1Saif May 12 '16 at 12:00
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The reason why this verse is said is: When God mentioned the Flies (ذباب) and spider (عنكبوت) in the Quraan, the polytheists said: "We don't believe in a god who uses such (flies and spiders) examples", so Allah revealed this verse: "Indeed, Allah is not timid to present an example - that of a mosquito or what is smaller than it."

You can check this on islamweb.

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