I would like to learn more about any Islamic precepts which mandate that Muslims organize their society as an Islamic state governed by the Sharia. Are there such precepts and where are they (Quran/Hadith)? Establishment and maintenance of such government has been a central theme in many Muslim societies for centuries. What mandates that a group of Muslims organize an Islamic government? Are Muslims still required to strive for such government and laws even when minority in the country of residence?
Lets look it in this way. When you come of age it becomes mandatory to offer prayers. When you start possessing enough wealth, paying zakah becomes mandatory. When you marry only then the rules regarding married life become applicable to you. In short, when you qualify certain conditions only then the relevant directives become applicable to you. You not NOT strive for qualification in order to become eligible for following a directive
Similarly, when Muslims start ruling some land it becomes mandatory for them to implement shariah laws. Acquiring land, however, is not an Islamic directive. Let me emphasize: one cannot argue that because there are directives in Islam that have to implemented by a state therefore trying to acquire one is also a directive of Islam. No, it is just that when Muslims get rule of a land (e.g. democratically or as in the past some Muslims king conquers a land) then they should implement Shariah Laws.