The only and obvious quality that the Surahs(Chapters of Qur'an) have are that they're authored by none other than the CREATOR himself, the best author ever.
Unlike the James Bond series, when the original author died, others tried to think like him and tried to produce sequels by Looking at the world in his shoes.
But, to think like the creator (I mean he knows what is good for us and what is not, and so accordingly he made out laws for the mankind) is impossible, as he is the All wise. Man wouldn't himself know what is good for him. For only the creator knows well about his creations.
So, even if someone tried to author some book like Qur'an making an hypothetical God, or even talking about the real God, it wouldn't stand long in this world of ADVANCED SCIENCE and LOGICAL REASONING because man makes mistakes.
To answer, your question, some of the qualities the surahs have (what I've felt are)
Creates a lot of psychological impact on the reader and convinces almost anyone who read it to say "Oh my God! THIS IS FROM GOD."
Convinced many scientists, archeologists, explorers and compelled them to question "How would a man know about these scientific facts 1400 years ago when there was no science or discoveries made."
Consists of True stories(set as examples for us to teach), which force the reader to convince himself to feel that the stories were REALLY TRUE. (Note: Qur'an 16:24-25)
Talks about various subjects pertaining to human life, and thereby drafting laws suiting the best of human behavior which are unquestionably in favor of humans who feel the laws are wise enough.
Is read by a person more than once who has read it once initially, thereby making it one of the books which is most highly read.
No matter how old the book was, doesn't create a taste of boredom to the reader as do other books do which create an obsolete taste to the readers as time passes.
No holy scripture has survived this long enough in its true form considering the aforementioned extraordinary features.
These are just a few which I've personally felt, but there might be many more qualities which make The Glorious Qur'an so Glorious.
The revelation of the Book (this Quran) is from the Lord of the 'Alamin (mankind, jinns and all that exists) in which there is not doubt! (Qur'an 32:2)
No matter how many Shakespeares, Einsteins and Abraham Lincolns sit together, they cannot make such a book with the aforementioned qualities.
May the creator guide us all.