Let's start by checking the meaning from the Qur'an itself:
You will find this word ( the Arabic noun) Surah/Sura سُورة (plural suwar سُوَر or surat سُورات) in many Qur'an Verses (I'm not sure if i quote all of them):
In Surat at-Tawba (9:64), (9:86), (9:124), (9:127)
In Surat Hud (11:13)
In Surat an-Nur (24:1)
And in Surat Mohammad (47:20)
In all of these Verses the words سُورة or سُوَر refer to a chapter from the Qur'an!
Now According to almaany (Please look at the Arabic/Arabic as Arabic English ends with the meaning described above) here are other meanings:
- Surah when speaking about a Building: a good, high, and "beautiful" one
- Surah when speaking of a wall: It's the deep root or base one start building the wall from -> technical term: foundation or footing!
- Surah also refers to a level, rate category or high standing pf something
- It could also be used for an indication, symbol or mark!
Notice that you might find in the Qur'an the word (noun) أساوِرَ this is a plural of إسوار which is often translated as bracelets!
You may also encounter the word (noun) سور with the plural أَسْوَارٌ or سِيرَانُ which is a wall or enclosure (see for example in Surat and al-Hadid).
And Allah knows best!