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I am specifically interested in when it is acceptable to break the fast at the point when, having started the fast and made niyah, a problem arises which makes it difficult to keep the fast. Despite looking all over the internet, unfortunately many people take "breaking the fast" to just mean not fasting. It makes it very difficult for me to find the answer to my question. I have not found any satisfactory answers anywhere on the internet.

Last year for example, I found out that I had to quickly travel to a funeral in order to reach my destination. If I had known about it the day before, I would not have fasted. But I had already made my niyah, started my day, then found out about this. Does it make a difference at what point you make the decision to travel, and thus break the fast? I couldn't find any information on this.

Also, what happens when you become ill during the day, after having made niyah? Yesterday I suddenly became very hypoglycaemic (I am not diabetic or anything, it just happened). I was shaking, and had extreme difficulty even in moving, I felt so awful. Luckily there was only a few minutes left till sunset, so I was just about able to hold on. But if it had been any longer, I don't think I could have done it. But I would have been worried about breaking the fast in any case. Again, is becoming ill during the day, as opposed to having been ill before it, an acceptable reason to break the fast?

Can anybody provide information on these matters please?

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The answer for the travel part of your question is that even if you intended to travel, you still have to begin your fast that day, and you are then permitted to break it once you've left the city limits.

As for the sickness part - if you're sick to the point where you no longer satisfy the conditions required of a fasting person, then the obligation of fasting is lifted from you.

References:
http://www.islam-usa.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=279&Itemid=246 http://islamqa.info/en/48975

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what if someone else falls ill or injured and you have to look after them and you could not do it while fasting (low energy level) ?

La iqraha fiddin. My understanding is any condition that means harm will come from your fast then it means conditions are relaxed (God is oft forgiving)

main thing is niat, that you do sincerely want to fast but a factor beyond your control stops you so you intend to make up for it later.

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