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I recently had to travel for work. That time I had to travel 100+ miles in non AC car during hot weather (+100 F) while fasting hour itself is long here (17 hour). I had to sweat quite a lot during my travel which possibly made me dehydrated. I don't really know but I think dehydration can make you delusional or angry. If this is true, this might cause an accident as I was driving by myself. Furthermore, I think a doctor would recommend to keep my body hydrated in such hot weather.

What is the Islamic ruling in this case?

Is it still compulsory, optional, or makroh?

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There are several views on the distance that one should travel in order not to fast:

  1. non Hanafi school: 48 miles
  2. Hanafi school : 72 miles
  3. Shia view: ~=15miles

As you can see the distance 100 miles is greater than all of these so you can just drop fasting.

To answer your question there are different opinions:

Sunni view:

The four Imams and the majority of the Sahaabah and Taabi’een were of the view that fasting whilst traveling is permissible and is correct and valid.

As for which is better it depends:

  1. If fasting does not affect the traveler, it is better to fast.
  2. If fasting causes hardship it is better not to fast.
  3. If it causes unbearable difficulty it is haram to fast.

Source

Shia View

By Covering the traveling distance, it is haram to fast. There are other details about when not to fast and when to fast that I won't be expanding on here.

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(Shia View)

Traveler cannot fast and should reduce the Rak'ats in Zuhr, Asr and Isha prayers, that is, he should perform two Rak'ats instead of four. The conditions by which one is called a "traveler" in Fiqh have been explained in the following link:

who is a Musafir?

If a fasting person travels after Zuhr, he should complete his fast.

If a fasting person travels before Zuhr, he cannot proceed with his fast, BUT he cannot break his fast until he gets to the limit of Trakhkhos.

If a traveler in the month of Ramadan gets to his hometown or the place where he intends to stay for 10 days before Zuhr, he should fast the day on condition that he has not committed an act which invalidates the fast. However if he has committed such an act he is not obligated to fast that day. This rule applies whether he was travelling before Fajr, or was fasting and then undertook the journey.

If a traveler gets to his hometown or the place where he intends to stay for 10 days after Zuhr, he cannot fast on that day.

Source: http://www.sistani.org/english/book/48/

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