The society of Muslims needs to be guided by caliph after Prophet Mohammad (PBUH). Hence, after the death of holy prophet (PBUH), a caliph was assigned to guide and rule the Muslims. According to my findings in noble Quran, God has assigned the caliph. For example, Moses the prophet (PBUH) didn't ask people to form a shura for choosing a successor when he left for miqat.

Moses said: "O’ Allah) assign me a vizier from my family, (that is) my brother Aaron (Haroon) ...,”(Allah) said: "We granted your requests, O’ Moses.”(20:29-36).

Or in another verse, Allah the exalted, directly mentions the word "Caliph":

يَا دَاوُودُ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الْأَرْ‌ضِ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوَىٰ فَيُضِلَّكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَضِلُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ بِمَا نَسُوا يَوْمَ الْحِسَابِ

[We said], "O David, indeed We have made you a successor upon the earth, so judge between the people in truth and do not follow [your own] desire, as it will lead you astray from the way of Allah." Indeed, those who go astray from the way of Allah will have a severe punishment for having forgotten the Day of Account. (38:26)

But I didn't find other clues mentioning the authority of the prophet or people. Please let me know if others except God has such an authority. Support your answer using Quran and Hadith.


2 Answers 2

               In the name of Allah, the most compassionate, the most merciful

According to Shia's viewpoint there must not be anyone except Allah to has the authority to assign the successor of the prophet.

Accordingly I reckon the answer of your question is ‘God’. Thus as you mentioned in your explanation part of the question, the mentioned verse of Holy Quran could be the most appropriate guide for your question which is:

Moses the prophet (PBUH) didn't ask people to form a shura for choosing a successor when he left for miqat.

Moses said: "O’ Allah) assign me a vizier from my family, (that is) my brother Aaron (Haroon) ...,”(Allah) said: "We granted your requests, O’ Moses.”(20:29-36).

The following verse of Quran likewise could help you:

Ahzab:67 And they will say, "Our Lord, indeed we obeyed our masters and our dignitaries, and they led us astray from the [right] way".

So it shows the significance of the assignment of the successor by its right way, not those who became leaders or successor by their concupiscence.

Of course I found some other relevant verses which could be profitable to see them. Such as: In “Kahf:6 shows the severe sorrow of the Prophet for the aberration of people:

"Then perhaps you would kill yourself through grief over them, [O Muhammad], if they do not believe in this message, [and] out of sorrow."

Or in An’am:116 shows the aberration of most people from the way of God:

"And if you obey most of those upon the earth, they will mislead you from the way of Allah. They follow not except assumption, and they are not but falsifying."

And some other similar verses which mentions the matter.

Hence, logically and likewise in accordance with the mentioned verses, we can figure out it is not rational that mankind be able to assign or select such a significant position (succession) of the Prophet (pbuh).

  • 1
    Thanks. Enhance your post by adding the translation from the verses (from available references such as tanzil.net) and add their online links. I'll be glad to see your answer developed. Jul 2, 2014 at 13:39
  • @ mate, I added their translations, and likewise used from the mentioned quranic site (tanzil.net) Jul 2, 2014 at 13:55

Who has the authority to appoint a successor (caliph)? God? the Prophet? People? God has not given any of the prophets the authority to appoint a successor, and all the successors of the prophets have been appointed by God. In a verse from the Holy Qur'an that Prophet Moses (pbuh) asks God to choose his brother Aaron, who is more eloquent than him, as the successor of Prophet Moses (pbuh), he said: When it comes to his successor, he asks God to make Aaron his successor, that is, the appointment of Aaron is also in the hands of God, and Moses can be the most proposer. The real view of the Imamate emphasizes that the appointment of the Imam is in the hands of God, and the stream of the roof (Saqifa means a roofed porch (canopy) and there was the meeting place of the Ansar. Osama separated and did not allow the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to choose Ali (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) as his successor in a written document. Provide a unit for the installation of the Imam and the ruler to his own people. As we see the first caliph in one way, the second caliph in another way and the third caliph different from the first two caliphs and the fourth caliph who is our first Imam Shiites and according to them is a righteous caliph were appointed in another way. Such behaviors show that if we do not accept the divine installation, we will be confused.

Ref: https://www.isna.ir/news/97060603178/%D8%B4%D8%A7%D9%87-%D8%A2%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AF%DB%8C-%D8%AA%D8%B9%DB%8C%DB%8C%D9%86-%D8%AC%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%B4%DB%8C%D9%86-%D9%BE%DB%8C%D8%A7%D9%85%D8%A8%D8%B1-%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D9%86%DA%AF%D8%A7%D9%87-%D8%AA%D9%88%D8%AD%DB%8C%D8%AF%DB%8C-%D8%A7%D8%B2-%D8%A7%D8%AE%D8%AA%DB%8C%D8%A7%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%AE%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%88%D9%86%D8%AF

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