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2:185 The month of Ramadhan [is that] in which was revealed the Qur'an, a guidance for the people and clear proofs of guidance and criterion. So whoever sights [the new moon of] the month, let him fast it; and whoever is ill or on a journey - then an equal number of other days. Allah intends for you ease and does not intend for you hardship and [wants] for you to complete the period and to glorify Allah for that [to] which He has guided you; and perhaps you will be grateful.

From the above ayah, the obligation to fast during Ramadan is clearly waived while one is travelling. Less clear, however, is what exactly constitutes a "journey."

Given as an example, I decide to travel to another city to visit family, and intend to stay at that city for a span of days. The trip between cities is long enough that it can easily be considered a journey, one in which fasting is unnecessary. The point of contention is whether or not the fast becomes obligatory again upon reaching the destination.

So the question lies thus: Does an extended visit in a distant city still count as a journey?

I know there is a significant difference of opinion among the scholars regarding this issue. As such, while scholarly opinions (from any school) are welcome, what I am particularly interested in is the actual evidences used to derive these opinions.

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  • There is no clear text to determine how long permissible in it to fitr, but as long as human has traveled to far city, without specifying the duration, but until finish his work, it is permissible not to fast.

  • The scholars agreed that the period is permissible for authorized
    travel permit not fasting for those who intends to stay in the
    country is below the four days, and Imam Ahmed set it in twenty
    prayer.

    The evidence of this: the period resided by the Prophet (peace be upon him) in Macca, that he resided in Mecca assertive, he entered the fourth day of the argument before Zuhr prayer and got out to Mina on the eighth day before Zuhr prayer, he prayed in Mecca twentieth prayer.

In general there are three cases for the rule of Fitr in travel:

  1. First case: if the fasting and not fasting are same, in the sense that fasting does not affect him, in this case fasting is better hadeeth by the following:

    قَالَ أَبُو الدَّرْدَاءِ لَقَدْ رَأَيْتُنَا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي بَعْضِ أَسْفَارِهِ فِي يَوْمٍ شَدِيدِ الْحَرِّ حَتَّى إِنَّ الرَّجُلَ لَيَضَعُ يَدَهُ عَلَى رَأْسِهِ مِنْ شِدَّةِ الْحَرِّ وَمَا مِنَّا أَحَدٌ صَائِمٌ إِلاَّ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ رَوَاحَةَ ‏

    Abu Darda' reported: We were with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) on some of his journeys on an intensely hot day so much so that a person would place his hand on his head (in order to protect himself) against excessive heat, and none amongst us was fasting but the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) and Abdullah b. Rawaha [Sahih Muslim]

  2. Second case: that the Fitr is easier for him, in which case we say that the Fitr better, if a hard for him to fast, then fasting became hateful(makroh); because doing hardship With the presence of a permit is reneging on a permit of God.

  3. Third case: if would be so difficult for him, and fasting unbearable , in this case fasting is haraam for him. The evidence the report narrated by Muslim

    عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، - رضى الله عنهما - أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم خَرَجَ عَامَ الْفَتْحِ إِلَى مَكَّةَ فِي رَمَضَانَ فَصَامَ حَتَّى بَلَغَ كُرَاعَ الْغَمِيمِ فَصَامَ النَّاسُ ثُمَّ دَعَا بِقَدَحٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ فَرَفَعَهُ حَتَّى نَظَرَ النَّاسُ إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ شَرِبَ فَقِيلَ لَهُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ إِنَّ بَعْضَ النَّاسِ قَدْ صَامَ فَقَالَ ‏"‏ أُولَئِكَ الْعُصَاةُ أُولَئِكَ الْعُصَاةُ ‏"‏

    Jabir b. 'Abdullah (Allah be pleased with both of them) reported that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) went out to Mecca in Ramadan in the year of Victory, and he and the people fasted till he came to Kura' al-Ghamim and the people also fasted. He then called for a cup of water which he raised till the people saw it, and then he drank. He was told afterwards that some people had continued to fast, and he said: These people are the disobedient ones; these are the disobedient ones.

References and some special cases

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