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The society of Muslims needs to be guided by caliph after prophet Mohammad (PBUH). Hence, after the death of holy prophet (PBUH), a caliph was assigned to guide and rule the Muslims. According to my findings in noble Qur'an, God has assigned the caliph. For example, Moses the prophet (PBUH) didn't ask people to form a Shura for choosing a successor when he left for Miqat.

Moses said: "O’ Allah) assign me a vizier from my family, (that is) my brother Aaron (Haroon) ...,”(Allah) said: "We granted your requests, O’ Moses.”(20:29-36).

Or in another verse, Allah the exalted, directly mentions the word "Caliph":

يَا دَاوُودُ إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاكَ خَلِيفَةً فِي الْأَرْ‌ضِ فَاحْكُم بَيْنَ النَّاسِ بِالْحَقِّ وَلَا تَتَّبِعِ الْهَوَىٰ فَيُضِلَّكَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَضِلُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ شَدِيدٌ بِمَا نَسُوا يَوْمَ الْحِسَابِ

[We said], "O David, indeed We have made you a successor upon the earth, so judge between the people in truth and do not follow [your own] desire, as it will lead you astray from the way of Allah." Indeed, those who go astray from the way of Allah will have a severe punishment for having forgotten the Day of Account.(38:26)

But I didn't find other clues mentioning the authority of the prophet or people. Please let me know if others except God has such an authority. Support your answer using Qur'an and Hadith.

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ALL the personalities that you mentioned to support the claim that it's only God that can elect leaders for the Muslims are Prophets, who are divinely ordained by God to guide mankind. We can't use those verses to then argue that Abubakar, Umar, Usman and Ali and indeed any subsequent caliph/ruler must be specially commissioned by God before they can be considered as legitimate.

If we were to elect a Caliph today, how are we going to go about that, if we're to wait upon divine command from heaven?

The Prophets are exceptions. Can humans elect Prophets for themselves? That's God's prerogative.

With regards Q38:26 that you quoted, that as well can't be used as an argument, because the entire mankind were made to be "khalifa" on the earth:

Q2:30 And [mention, O Muhammad], when your Lord said to the angels, "Indeed, I will make upon the earth a successive authority." They said, "Will You place upon it one who causes corruption therein and sheds blood, while we declare Your praise and sanctify You?" Allah said, "Indeed, I know that which you do not know."

And after David and his son Solomon (both Prophets), the Jewish people still had to "elect" leaders for themselves (usually through succession) as people can't remain ungoverned. Yusuf also served under the King of Egypt, and he wouldn't have done that if he had considered his leadership to be illegitimate. Yusuf himself rose to his position by being nominated by the King.

With regards how to go about electing leaders, we've witnessed nomination and consultation and in later years, succession, being used throughout Islamic History. Ultimately, of course, nobody can be a caliph/ruler unless God wills it to happen (Q3:26).

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