Most of my knowledge is about Judaism. Within Judaism, it is not considered necessary for all non-Jews to convert to Judaism. Consequently, non-Jews do not have to follow all 613 of the laws in the Torah. Instead, non-Jews are required (according to Judaism) to follow just 7 laws, and if they follow these 7 laws, they are considered to be doing everything that is required of them. For example, Jews do not believe that Muslims should be keeping the Jewish Sabbath. Even though it is considered prohibited for Jews to, for example, drive on the Sabbath, Jews do not consider it a sin at all when a Muslim drives on the Sabbath.
My question is, what is the level of obligation for non-Muslims (according to Islam) to follow the laws of Islam? If a person does not convert to Islam and accept all of the laws, is that person considered to be doing something wrong? For example, if a Jew drinks alcohol, would he be considered to be sinning according to Islam, or is it not a problem since he is not Muslim? Would that person be punished in the afterlife for having consumed alcohol even though he was not Muslim?
For the purposes of this question, let us assume that the person is aware of Islam, but chooses to remain loyal to his religion.