"Whoever prays 12 rakaat in the day and night, a house in Jannah will be built for him." [Muslim]
I ask, must those 12 rakaat be 'additional' to the other obligatory rakaat in the 5 salawat?
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I believe the answer by Sayyid is misleading, especially the last paragraph.
Umm Habeebah (radi Allahu anha) , the wife of the Prophet (sallalahu alayhi wasallam) said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi wasallam) say: “There is no Muslim slave who prays twelve rak‘ahs to Allah each day, voluntarily, apart from the obligatory prayers, but Allah will build for him a house in Paradise.” (Muslim)
The rak‘ahs are mentioned in detail in another hadeeth, as in the hadeeth of at-Tirmidhi from Umm Habeebah, who said: The Messenger of Allah (sallalahu alayhi wasallam) said: “Whoever prays twelve rak‘ahs in a day and night, a house will be built for him in Paradise: four before Zuhr and two after it, two rak‘ahs after Maghrib, two rak‘ahs after ‘Isha’, and two rak‘ahs before Fajr prayer.”
I hope these two ahadith answer your question.
No, these 12 rak'at are any 12 outside of the fard prayers. This could be what people call "sunnah" prayers that are prayed before or after the fard.
Some have claimed these 12 rak'ats are suppose to be at night, during tahajjud time. However, the hadith you quoted clearly mentions day along with night.
So these 12 rak'at can be prayed at anytime and Rasolullah didn't specify a time period except that they be within a day.