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I do know that when travelling more than a said distance it is permissible to perform Jammu(combining 2 prayers) and Qasar(shortening prayers) accordingly as per the guidance. But what I would like to know is that; How about if you're working abroad and you're completely away from your home town?

In addition to that; I travel in between the city too. As in, I travel from one island to another every day for work even though it is part of the same country. To make it more clear, I live in Maldives, a country which consists of 1197 islands if I'm not mistaken. Therefore, how will the prayers apply for me?? Can I shorten the prayers and combine or do I have to pray 5 times with complete raka'ats.??

This is just for my acknowledgement only & it can be useful for me at times to clear my doubts. But I do pray and still trying to pray all 5 times without performing any Jammu or Qasr.

To Summarize :

1- How should I pray if I'm working abroad and away from family ?

2- How should I pray if I travel in between city and in between islands in the same country ?

3
In the name of God

================== All the Muslim believe in legality of shorting pray in travels and their documented evidence is this ayah: "

وإِذا ضَرَبْتُمْ فِي الأَرْض فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُناحٌ أَن تَقْصُروا مِنَ الصَّلاةِ إِنْ خِفْتُم أَن يَفْتِنَكُمُ الّذينَ كَفَرُوا انّ الكافرينَ كانُوا لَكُمْ عَدُوّاً مُبيناً

".(Nisa/101), But the important point is that "shorting pray in travels" is Vajib (obligatory) or a Muslim can choose to do it or not.

According to Shitte

You must pray with complete rakayats, because they call you "Daem al-safar". It means that you always go on trips or it means that your occupation is needed to go on trips such as drivers, students and so on. Shyekh Tosi (one of shitte scholars) said that all the shitte believe in this order and O'mar Ibn Khatab also agreed with it like shitte scholars (1). The sources of this Hokem is some Hadiths which narrated by sunni scholars such as:

(2) فرض الله الصلاة على لسان نبيكم في السفر ركعتين

According to Sunni

Abu-Hanifeh and Malek agreed Shitte but Shafi and Hanableh believe that mukallaf can choose shorten pray or not, Although shortening it is better or recommendable (3). Their evidence for this viewpoint is: **firs**t, we understand by the phrase in ayah> Ayah انّ الصَّفا وَالمَرْوَةَ مِنْ شَعائِر اللّه فَمَنْ حَجَّ البَيْتَ

أَوِ اعْتَمَرَ فَلا جُناحَ عليهِ أَنْ يَطَوَّفَ بِهِما (Baghreh/158) لا جناح علیکم we can decide to shorten pray or not. The important point is none of scholars didn't order Muslims to choose to go to Safa and Marveh or not in the pilgrim of Allah Home (3). secon****d, some hadiths such as: Moslem said: I asked O'mar about the ayah "

فليس عليكم جناح

أن تقصروا من

الصلاة أن يفتنكم الّذين كفروا"

He answered me: The prophet Mohammad (p) said: The shortening the prays is charity or voluntary alms by Allah, So accept it (4). They said that we can accept charity of other or not, so here also we can choose (5). But we can say that the order of prophet means it is obligatory and the choice of accepting charity of others is limited in the relations of human beings not in relation of the creator and human beings (5). The second hadiths was narrated by A'yesheh: she said when I was with the prophet (p) he and His accompaniment shorten pray and don't fast but I fast and pray completely . Then he said to me: praise and blessing you (6). This haddiths is considered weak by Ibn Theimeih. and also there are other hadiths that the concept of them is against the above-mentioned hadiths (7). References:

  1. کتاب الخلاف،‌ج1،‌ص569

  2. صحیح مسلم، ج2،‌ص143

  3. القصر فی السفر علی ضوء الکتاب و السنة،‌ص13

  4. کتاب المجموع لمحی الدین النووی، ج4، ص337, کتاب الخلاف،‌ج1، ص569 و القصر فی السفر علی ضوء الکتاب و السنة،‌ص5,المغنی، ج2، ص90-95 , کتاب الام، ج1، ص207و 208

  5. کتاب المجموع لمحی الدین النووی، ج4، ص339
  6. القصر فی السفر علی ضوء الکتاب و السنة،‌ص39-40
  7. السنن الکبری للبیهقی،‌ج3،‌ص141
  8. السنن الکبری للبیهقی،‌ج3،‌ص142
  9. همان، ص 42-45

All the context is available at: http://intjz.net/maqalat/sh-ekhtelaf.html#_edn62

2

As long as you consider yourself as a traveler, you can shorten your prayers.

Rasulullah never VERBALLY told us the exact amount one has to travel in order to pray qasr.

There are some reports saying the Prophet shortened his prayer when he traveled 3 miles outside of Medina.

Yahya said I asked Anas b. Malik about shortening of prayer. He said when Rasulullah had covered a distance of three miles he observed two rak'ah. [Sahih Muslim]

And there are some reports in al-Muhalla saying ibn Umar said prophet shortened his prayer when he traveled one mile.

So the amount varies according to the person and travel. In your case, you can shorten your prayers if you feel you're on a journey.

0

there are two points you have to take into consideration:

1.Safar(travel) is a word that has an especial meaning in Fiqh. According to Islamic rules, in order for a person to be considered a traveler(Musafir) , 8 conditions must be fulfilled:

1)His journey is not less than 8 farsakh

2)the traveler should intend at the time of the beginning of the journey, to cover a distance of 8 farsakh.

3)the traveller should not change his mind while on his way

4)the traveller does not intend to pass through his home town and stay there, or to stay at some place for 10 days or more, before he reaches a distance of 8 farsakh.

5)the purpose of travelling should not be haraam

6) the traveller should not be a nomad, who roam about in the deserts, and temporarily stay at places where they find food for themselves, and fodder and water for their animals, and again proceed to some other place after a few days' halt.

7)travelling should not be his profession, that is, one who has no other work but travelling; or that travelling is the means of his subsistence, like the camel riders, drivers, herdsmen and sailors. Such people will pray full, even if they travel for their personal work, like transporting their own household effects, or transporting their families. Those who live at one place and work at another, commuting every day, or every other day, like students or businessmen etc., fall in this category.

8) the traveler reaches the limit of tarakhkhus, that is, at a point beyond which travelling begins.

2.Every Salat has its own time which means Fajr prayer, for instance, can not be offered after the sunrise whether you are a traveler or not.

Source: http://www.sistani.org/english/book/48/2250/

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