Yes, it is permissible to make dua against someone who has wronged you or wronged someone else - especially if you do not have any other means of stopping or punishing them. This madhab has been adopted by most scholars, see al-Adhkaar, Mawaahib al-Jaleel , Mughni al-Muhtaaj, Kashshaaf al-Qinaa’ etc.
Evidence for praying against wrongdoers and opressors:
Prophet Noah عليه السلام made the following dua against the disbelievers of his time:
لا تذر على الأرض من الكافرين ديارا ... ولا تزد الظالمين إلا تبارا
My Lord, do not leave upon the earth from among the disbelievers an inhabitant ... and do not increase the wrongdoers except in destruction.
— Quran 71:26-28
And Prophet Moses عليه السلام made the following dua against Pharaoh and his establishment:
ربنا اطمس على أموالهم واشدد على قلوبهم
Our Lord, obliterate their wealth and harden their hearts
— Quran 10:88
And Prophet Muhammad ﷺ was instructed to do Mubahala with the delegation of Najran:
فقل تعالوا ندع أبناءنا وأبناءكم ونساءنا ونساءكم وأنفسنا وأنفسكم ثم نبتهل فنجعل لعنت الله على الكاذبين
Say: "Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then supplicate earnestly [together] and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars [among us]."
— Quran 3:61
Additionally, making a supplication against one who oppresses you comes under the meaning of the following verse:
ولمن انتصر بعد ظلمه فأولئك ما عليهم من سبيل
And whoever avenges himself after having been wronged - those have not upon them any cause [for blame].
— Quran 42:41
Since it often happens that an oppressed person does not have the ability to take revenge himself, but rather they have to rely on Allah.
It also comes under the meaning of the following verse:
لا يحب الله الجهر بالسوء من القول إلا من ظلم وكان الله سميعا عليما
Allah does not like the public mention of evil except by one who has been wronged. And ever is Allah Hearing and Knowing.
— Quran 4:148
Since this is done as a form of complaining, and it includes complaining to Allah as also evident by the attributes of Allah that are mentioned in the verse. It is reported that Ibn Abbas, Hasan al-Basri and Qatada noted that it means dua against an oppressor.
The following hadith implies that supplicating against an oppressor is permissible:
اتق دعوة المظلوم، فإنها ليس بينها وبين الله حجاب
Be afraid, from the curse of the oppressed as there is no screen between his invocation and Allah.
— Bukhari 2448
And there are many examples in ahadith where Prophet Muhammad ﷺ made dua against the disbelievers who had wronged him:
ملأ الله قبورهم وبيوتهم نارا كما شغلونا عن الصلاة الوسطى
May Allah fill their (the infidels') graves and houses with fire, as they have kept us so busy that we could not offer the middle prayer till the sun had set
— Bukhari 6396
اللهم منزل الكتاب، سريع الحساب، اهزم الأحزاب، اهزمهم وزلزلهم
O Allah, the Revealer of the Holy Book, and the One swift at reckoning! Defeat the confederates; Defeat them and shake them.
— Bukhari 6392
اللهم عليك بأبي جهل، وعليك بعتبة بن ربيعة، وشيبة بن ربيعة، والوليد بن عتبة، وأمية بن خلف، وعقبة بن أبي معيط
O Allah! Punish Abu Jahl, Utba bin Rabi'a, Shaiba bin Rabi'a, Al-Walid bin Utba, Umaiya bin Khalaf, and Uqba bin Al Mu'it
— Bukhari 240
اللهم اشدد وطأتك على مضر، اللهم اجعلها عليهم سنين كسني يوسف
O Allah! Be hard on the Tribe of Mudar; O Allah! Inflict years of drought upon them like the years (of drought) of the Prophet (ﷺ) Joseph."
— Bukhari 6393
وانقل حماها فاجعلها بالجحفة
O Allah! ... Transfer the fever that is in it (Medinah) to Al-Juhfa
— Bukhari 6372
And there are also cases where he prayed against specific sinners, such as:
أن رجلا أكل عند رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بشماله فقال كل بيمينك قال لا أستطيع قال لا استطعت ما منعه إلا الكبر
A man ate with his left hand in the presence of the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). He said: "Eat with your right hand." He said: "I cannot."
He said: "May you never be able to," for nothing was preventing him from doing so but arrogance.
— Muslim 2021 (107)
Actions of the Sahaba:
It is also corroborated by the actions of the Sahaba. For example there are reports that some of them made dua against those who had made false accusations against them.
اللهم إن كان عبدك هذا كاذبا قام رياء وسمعة فأطل عمره وأطل فقره، وعرضه للفتن
Saad bin Abi Waqas said: O Allah! If this slave of yours is a liar and got up for showing off, give him a long life, increase his poverty and put him to trials.
— Bukhari 755
اللهم، إن كانت كاذبة فأعم بصرها، واجعل قبرها في دارها
Sa'eed bin Zaid said: O Allah, if she is lying, take away her sight and make her grave in her house.
— Muslim 1610 b (138)