Stealing is obviously wrong, and disallowed in Islam.
However there are still some questions I have (because I cant see how to make them generic, I have phrased them as examples) and would like well referenced answers preferably from fiqh :
If I see a penny on the floor, can I pick it up with the intention of keeping it? What about the intention of giving it to charity? Assumption: the penny is not owned by anyone ergo, I can claim it.
What if I see a large sum of money? Or a valuable natural resource (e.g gem stone) that may/may not be naturally occurring?
What about small non-monetary items like pens and free news papers? Assumption: Items that are given away free remain free when dropped. Also these items are easily replaceable.
What about expensive monetary items? Watches, fountain pens etc?
What if you find any of these items buried?
What of those can I claim?