I'm putting together a Pascal's wager piece of sorts, and wanted to see what modern religions think atheists deserve. So if Islam pans out to be the one true religion, what'll happen to me (an atheist) after death?
Generally every human will enter to Barzakh universe and waiting until the Judgement day. At Judgement day people will be Judged and then enter Paradise or Hell.
But if you want to know the details they are too much to write here. So I suggest to study this book for detailed steps after death:
Atheist will be accused of not using the wisdom ('Aql) properly for knowing God during a long enough life. if the accused atheist cannot provide enough reason for not knowing and obeying God will be punished. But enough research and seeking is needed by any price like immigration:
Indeed, those whom the angels take [in death] while wronging themselves - [the angels] will say, "In what [condition] were you?" They will say, "We were oppressed in the land." The angels will say, "Was not the earth of Allah spacious [enough] for you to emigrate therein?" For those, their refuge is Hell - and evil it is as a destination. http://tanzil.net/#4:97
God wants to every nation or group of people (for example atheists) select some representative to do enough research about religion:
And it is not for the believers to go forth [to battle] all at once. For there should separate from every division of them a group [remaining] to obtain understanding in the religion and warn their people when they return to them that they might be cautious. http://tanzil.net/#9:122
Islam is really a moderate and peaceful religion. Islam doesn't throw you to Hell directly as God is Merciful and He loves the humans. According to Prophet Muhammad(SAW), Allah loves His creatures "Humans" more than the love of seventy mothers. Here it is human not Muslim. If you are atheist, Jew whoever. Allah loves you. Did you know about such a Magnificent lover who loves you this much? If not, You are a very bad man then! Behold! think about that and don't despair Him.
Allah States in Surah Al Baqra: Ayah 286:
لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ ۗ رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِنْ نَسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِنَا ۚ رَبَّنَا وَلَا تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لَا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ ۖ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا ۚ أَنْتَ مَوْلَانَا فَانْصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ
Allah does not burden any human being with more than he can bear. Everyone will enjoy the credit of his deeds and suffer the debits of his evil-doings. The believers say: "Our Rabb! Do not punish us if we forget or make a mistake. Our Rabb! Do not place on us a burden as You placed on those before us. Our Rabb! Lay not on us the kind of burden that we have no strength to bear. Pardon us, Forgive us, Have mercy on us. You are our Protector, help us against the unbelievers."
So the short answer which I will give you is that go and research about God. Quest for the truth. Seek the honesty. Struggle for finding what is right. You will indeed find God. If you found God and You understood that Islam is the truth and then didn't accept it You are at risk then and The One who loves you so much will give you reward for not accepting His evidence or rules while you did know that these are real and honest and based on truth. But If you did not conclude something positive in spite of your hard work and If you did not find evidences about Truth of Islam and God you wont be punished then because Allah has stated that "Allah does not burden any human being with more than he can bear. Everyone will enjoy the credit of his deeds and suffer the debits of his evil-doings." As it is evident from the above quoted Ayyah. So Good luck for your quest and struggle. You will have a good result if you follow what you find after the quest and Allah doesn't like those who disobey while they understand! And Allah doesn't punish those who couldn't find an evidence even they had struggled hard!
Maybe this link will help you https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-oxDUG9DQg.
And this what await you after death:
You will be asked, as mentioned in Verse 67:6-9
- And for those who disbelieved in their Lord is the punishment of Hell, and wretched is the destination.
- When they are thrown into it, they hear from it a [dreadful] inhaling while it boils up. It almost bursts with rage. Every time a company is thrown into it, its keepers ask them, "Did there not come to you a warner?"
- They will say," Yes, a warner had come to us, but we denied and said, ' Allah has not sent down anything. You are not but in great error.' " And they will say, "If only we had been listening or reasoning, we would not be among the companions of the Blaze."And they will admit their sin, so [it is] alienation for the companions of the Blaze.
And if you still don't believe it:
11:4: And if they do not respond to you - then know that the Qur'an was revealed with the knowledge of Allah and that there is no deity except Him. Then, would you [not] be Muslims?
With all simplicity, it is up to you and is your choice whatever happens to you after death. If one chooses to deny the existence of God, and refuses to accept the signs which come to one, and refuses to use ones mind that God has given us to use, then one has chosen hell. Now if one chooses to Believe in Gods existence and accepts it, and asks Him for guidance and accepts what comes, then you have chosen heaven and God willing one enters it.
You see it is very simple, and all goes back to the individual, ones own person/self, what ever you choose affects ones fate, whatever a person strives for in this world is what he/she gets, if one wants this world then one gets it, if one wants to the hereafter, then not only do we get this world and blessings in it but also not lose anything in the hereafter.
And please, note that I cannot tell you whether you go to heaven or hell, as the judgement is up to Allah alone, but I will say that a person who is an atheist and refuses to believe, until the time of death, he will certainly find a surprise waiting for him.