I'm not sure whether it's culture or if it has roots in hadith, but I feel the Jumu'ah (Friday prayer) should be a centralized event, by which I mean that if in one region there are several mosques, only one of them should host the Jumu'ah salah. Can someone bring up relevant texts?
My answer is based on my understanding that this question actually touches the subject of usool-e-deen i.e. sources of deen.
- It is not culture but Sunnah. Sunnah itself is an independent source of Deen just like Quran.
- Note: By Sunnah I do not mean Hadith. Sunnah, like Quran, has reached us through
perpetual practiceof all the Muslim generations since the Prophet i.e. Muslims offer Friday prayer in congregation because every
generationhas seen the earlier
generationoffering it like this and this chain goes back to the prophet.
- So, asking for a Hadith is just like asking for historical record of a Sunnah which you see live.
- Your feeling about it being a centralized event is not wrong. It is corroborated by the fact that according to Sunnah it has to be conducted by Muslim rulers. The rightly guided and umayyad caliphs always followed this.
I think the following aya is enough to answer for your question ...
يا أيها الذين آمنوا إذا نودي للصلاة من يوم الجمعة فاسعوا إذا ذكر الله وذروا البيع، ذلكم خير لكم ان كنتم تعلمون سورة الجمعة:9
O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu'ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah and leave trade. That is better for you, if you only knew. [Al-Jumu'a:9]
Where according to the aya plural form "فاسعوا" in the sense of congregations
so in this aya indicates that it should be presence Friday and listen to the khutbah