Prophet Jesus (PBUH) came as a warner to Jews. Jews or Bani-Israel is the nation that originated from Prophet Abraham's (PBUH) son, Prophet Isaac (PBUH).
Before Prophet Abraham (PBUH), individuals were given prophethood but then the whole progeny of Prophet Abraham (PBUH) were given "prophethood".
This is mentioned in Surah 2 Verse 124
And [mention, O Muhammad], when Abraham was tried by his Lord with
commands and he fulfilled them. [ Allah ] said, "Indeed, I will make
you a leader for the people." [Abraham] said, "And of my descendants?"
[ Allah ] said, "My covenant does not include the wrongdoers."
But when the jewish nation itself got corrupted, different prophets came to them, the last of them was Prophet Jesus (PBUH). So he came as a warner to a nation that whose was itself a warner. When the jewish nation tried to kill Prophet Jesus (PBUH), Allah saved him and instead of destroying them, they were doomed to eternal subordination.
This is mentioned in Surah 3 Verse 55
Mention] when Allah said, "O Jesus, indeed I will take you and raise you to Myself and purify you from those who disbelieve and make those who follow you [in submission to Allah alone] superior to those who disbelieve until the Day of Resurrection. ...
To reiterate, Jewish nation was not destroyed because they are different from other nations as they have been chosen by Allah to be a warner for mankind. The punishment for the crimes is now ethernal subordination.