Living things were created from water:
Have those who disbelieved not considered that the heavens and the earth were a joined entity, and We separated them and made from water every living thing? Then will they not believe? (Al-'Anbiya' 21:30)
Allah has created every [living] creature from water. And of them are those that move on their bellies, and of them are those that walk on two legs, and of them are those that walk on four. Allah creates what He wills. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent. (An-Nur 24:45)
Adam was created from clay:
And We did certainly create man out of clay from an altered black mud. (Al-Hijr 15:26)
That is the Knower of the unseen and the witnessed, the Exalted in Might, the Merciful, Who perfected everything which He created and began the creation of man from clay. (As-Sajdah 32:6-7)
The majority of the Quran - the commandments, are to be taken literally. The rest are not specific and more like storytelling. These vague ones are not the foundation of the Book.
It is He who has sent down to you, [O Muhammad], the Book; in it are verses [that are] precise - they are the foundation of the Book - and others unspecific. ('Ali-Imran 3:7)
So here, Allah does not give the fine details of how Allah and the angels created man. They could have been evolved out of something. They could have been literally clay and formed into a figure of a man. Or Adam might have been a clay mould mixed with the essence (whatever that means) of another living creature.
I don't think anyone can dispute that living things are mostly water, but Muslim theologists will argue about what creation from clay really means.
There's nothing in the Quran actually disagreeing with evolution. Maybe disagreement that humans evolved from primates. But Vitamin C or whatever is still insufficient evidence. Maybe Allah created apes in the same way as humans, which is why they have similar genes. Maybe apes were an early prototype of humans made with the wrong kind of clay.