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Where do we find the exact sequence to be followed while offering a 4-rak'ah salat in the hadith? I mean, first, the surah fatiha, followed by a surah, then ruku', then getting up, then performing 2 sajdah, sitting after 2 raka'h and reciting a short prayer (attahhiyyat), and then doing the same for 2 more raka'h.

Edit : This article summarizes the hadith related to the method of salat, but they don't cover the exact sequence of ALL the above. In the links, several links are provided that do tell us about all of the above parts of salat, but they increasingly rely on hadith collections outside the six canonized ones

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I don't know of any single hadith which describes the entirety of salat; the common practice is compiled from multiple ahadith from various sources. However, the hadith of the man who prayed badly describes the bulk of it in detail:

He [The Prophet] said: "When you get up to pray, perform wudu and do it well, then turn to face the Qiblah and say the takbir. Then recite the Quran, then bow until you are at ease in bowing. Then stand up until you are standing straight, then prostrate until you are at ease prostrating, then sit up until you are at ease sitting, then prostrate until you are at ease prostrating, then get up, and continue doing that until you have finished your prayer."

This is considered (at least by some schools) to be the absolute minimum required for a salah to be accepted. There are a number of other hadith regarding, for example, the recitation of Al-Fatihah and the tashahhud, but I reckon that compiling a list of ahadith for every action in the salah would be too broad for this answer (especially since for many actions, there would be a significant difference of opinion as to which are considered mandatory, which are highly recommended, and which are merely optional).

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