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What are the consequences for non-Muslims living in a Muslim state if they refuse to pay the Jizya? According to Sahih Muslim:

If they refuse to accept Islam, demand from them the Jizya. If they agree to pay, accept it from them and hold off your hands. If they refuse to pay the tax, seek Allah's help and fight them.

What does the Hadith mean by fight them? Does it involve blood, just seizure of property or enslavement of the women and children of the family? Please elaborate on all three (if applicable).

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What does the Hadith mean by fight them? Does it involve blood, just seizure of property or enslavement of the women and children of the family? Please elaborate on all three (if applicable)

This is what it means...

Fight against those who (1) believe not in Allah, (2) nor in the Last Day, (3) nor forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger (4) and those who acknowledge not the religion of truth (i.e. Islam) among the people of the Scripture (Jews and Christians), until they pay the Jizyah with willing submission, and feel themselves subdued. (Qur'an 9:29)

So, the motto was to collect Jizya from them in order to make them feel subdued (If a person is subdued, they are not as happy as usual or they are unusually quiet - Cambridge Dictionary). If they refused to pay it, then fighting until the rule was followed/acted upon.

Does it involve blood?

Yes.

just seizure of property

I don't think so. because the verse clearly says 'willing submission' meaning they voluntarily agree to give the money, not forcefully taking it from them.

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Jizya was a punishment given by Allah to Jews and Christian of the time of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) after clarifying the truth to the last degree. The punishment that was given to the idol worshippers was death. The option given to them was due to the fact that they believed in one God. The Hadith that you referenced gives the term of this punishment.

This punishment can only be given when a prophet of Allah is in this world. Since no prophet is to come yet, jizya can not taken from any non-muslim. So there is no question of killing, seizure of property etc.

  • This sounds rather harsh. Can you give reference to the source(s) where this can be verified? – CobaltBabyBear Feb 6 '14 at 17:36
  • "This punishment can only be given when a prophet of Allah is in this world" - where did you find this? – aasheq May 1 '15 at 22:06

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