Can anyone explain more about this saying of Imam Ali (from Nahjul-balagha):
مَعَ کُلِّ شَیْء لا بِمُقارَنَة، وَ غَیْرُ کُلَّ شَیْء لا بِمُزایَلَة
He is with everything but not in nearness. He is different from everything but not in separation.
Simply Allah is everywhere without being somewhere in the way other objects are said to be somewhere, since He has no alike; and Allah is different from the other objects without the objects ever existing without Him, so He is different without being separated from the other objects.
This example may help better understand this. If I am a student in a classroom, the teacher is teaching and I am thinking about my laptop in my room, then physically I am there in the classroom but I am not really there with all my consciousness, so the teacher speaks and I don't hear without pushing my fingers into my ears, my eyes see the teacher but my brain doesn't understand what the eyes see. Physically being somewhere and noticing (توجه) the environment is different. Allah is the Creator, according to Imam Sadiq peace be upon him He creates so how it be possible that He don't know (according to at least some Shia philosophers creation of Allah is continuous so we don't have anything like "creation+maintenance" but only creation from instant to instant, always renewing all the creation). His knowledge about everything thus is fresh, comprehensive and exhaustive, so Him being conscious, having His will and power, being existed and Alive can be considered for everywhere and together with everything that exists, but obviously that doesn't imply that Allah is positioned in every positions. Similarly an example about how is the creation of Allah is that consider your image in a mirror. Your image is an imaginary image, it doesn't exist in reality but still an observer can describe its quality. About the creation of Allah only Allah exists as independent of anything else, but His creation exists only upto His existence, if there is no God there will be no creation, like the image of you in the mirror, it exists as long as you are there in front of the mirror. So the image in the mirror and everything that exist (creatures of Allah) depend on another existences, they are not separated beings but they are different things.
And Allah is the All knower.
We can answer to this good question after explaining some points:
First, since that the god is infinite and without any boundaries therefore the infinite include finite things. According to imam Ali’s Hikmat (widom) the god as infinite being encompasses all other things. Other beings as contingents are dependent in terms of their being to god as necessary being.
Second, god has many different adjectives like above. some adjectives explain negative dimensions like material ,finite etc. and others explain positive dimensions like necessity, perfect being.
When imam ail piece be upon him talks about mogharanah it means that god is not a material thing though it is thing like other things and when we say the god is along with things namely the god as infinite thing include other things. More study see: Ayatollah Javadi AMOLI, ALAVI WISDOM,RESEARCHER:SAEED BAND ALI,ESRA PUBLICATION.QOM IRAN