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Is it mandatory to take-off one's shoes in order to say one's prayer/salah, if one's sure of them being clean?

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It is not mandatory. It is in fact the Sunnah to make Salat with the shoes on, as is narrated of the Prophet (ﷺ) doing so, he (ﷺ) also told us to make salat in our shoes after checking to see if there is no unclean things on it, if found then it should be wiped.

إِذَا جَاءَ أَحَدُكُمْ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ فَلْيَنْظُرْ فَإِنْ رَأَى فِي نَعْلَيْهِ قَذَرًا أَوْ أَذًى فَلْيَمْسَحْهُ وَلْيُصَلِّ فِيهِمَا

When any of you comes to the mosque, he should see; if he finds filth on his sandals, he should wipe it off and pray in them.

سنن أبي داوود (Abi Dawood)

But because today it is popular that Masajid have carpets, it is best to take off the shoes as to not harm the carpet or make trouble.

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    If now a days if someone goes in shoes they would kill him. What about the four fingers touching ground?
    – localhost
    Jan 9, 2014 at 14:24
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Bismillah.

One of the conditions which must be met before starting a prayer is to make sure that one's body and clothes and the place in which the Muslim is going to pray are all clean and free of impurities.

Anas ibn Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) was asked, “Did the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) pray wearing shoes?” He said, “Yes.” (al-Bukhaari, 386; Muslim, 555).

However, from the above passage, it is clear that the Prophet (PBUH) would pray wearing shoes. But if there was any impurity or dirt on his (PBUH) shoes, then he would take them off:

“While the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was leading his companions in prayer, he took off his shoes and placed them to his left. When the people saw that, they took off their shoes too. When the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) finished his prayer, he asked, ‘What made you take off your shoes?’ They said, ‘We saw you take off your shoes, so we took ours off too.’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Jibreel (peace be upon him) came to me and told me that there was something dirty on them.’ When any one of you comes to the mosque, let him look and if he sees anything dirty on his shoes, let him wipe them and then pray in them.” (Abu Dawood, 650; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 605).

Another reason in which the Prophet (PBUH) would pray without shoes is because he wanted to be different than the Jews:

“Be different from the Jews, who do not pray in their shoes or in their leather slippers (khufoof).” (Abu Dawood, 652; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 607).

You have to remember though that back in the days of the Prophet (PBUH), mosques where nothing but dirt. I.e, they didn't have carpets over concrete floors for example that we have today. That is why they used to pray with shoes on. Today, it is more acceptable to pray, in a mosque, with your shoes off. However, if one is praying in a "dirty" place, such as a park or a floor without carpets for example, than it is okay to pray without shoes. Source

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