Is there a hadith that prohibits the cutting down of lotus trees?
There are definitely ahadith against cutting down sidrah (which is commonly understood to mean lotus/lote-trees).
According to Abu Dawud, the Prophet's statement "If anyone cuts the lote-tree, Allah brings him headlong into Hell" is not about the lote-tree itself, as it is about wastefully cutting trees that provide benefit (i.e. shelter) to others.
Salaam! Okay I don't know why you made the question so specific to lotus trees but, from what I've researched, there are a few cases;
here a few Hadith explaining the legality of cutting down trees in the case of war.
I also found a bit of history on how masjid an-nabawiy was built, and tree trunks were used; islamicencyclopedia.org, unfortunately I can't find any sources/references on there regarding witnesses or narrators
but obviously if they provide shelter for people or food you shouldn't cut them down, this is just logic, but I'm sure you'll find a hadith that will say the same