Definition of Patent from Wikipedia:
A patent is a form of intellectual property. It consists of a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state to an inventor or their assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention.
Does Islam allow people to take patent for their intellectual products?
If yes, what complexity a product must have to be allowed to taken patent for?
Everyone will agree that something as simple as "lemonade" cannot be patented. But, for example, consider a bicycle. Suppose that bicycle hadn't been invented, and someone invents it today. Can he patent it, so that everyone that wants to ride bicycle will have to pay him for that? Or, can he forbid riding bicycle all over the world out of a whim? You can thing on a different example, maybe on a more complex invention. Does complexity of the invention change the right to patent? If yes, what is the threshold level?
Is this kind technology hiring/leasing allowed in Islam? Can a knowledge belong to someone, can it be in someone's control? Does Allah permit this?
Please consider the following ayat:
قَالَ إِنَّمَا أُوتِيتُهُ عَلَى عِلْمٍ عِندِي أَوَلَمْ يَعْلَمْ أَنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ أَهْلَكَ مِن قَبْلِهِ مِنَ القُرُونِ مَنْ هُوَ أَشَدُّ مِنْهُ قُوَّةً وَأَكْثَرُ جَمْعًا وَلَا يُسْأَلُ عَن ذُنُوبِهِمُ الْمُجْرِمُونَ
He said, "I was only given it because of knowledge I have." Did he not know that Allah had destroyed before him of generations those who were greater than him in power and greater in accumulation [of wealth]? But the criminals, about their sins, will not be asked.
Kasas 78 (28/78)
Qaroon thinks that he obtained everything with his ilm (knowledge), but he is wrong. What makes Qaroon wrong? Is this ayat related to our topic? If yes, what do we understand from it?