8 added 1806 characters in body
source | link

WORK IN PROGRESS

Is praying the hands to the sides really the view of Malik?

Is praying the hands to the sides really the view of Malik?

Defining some terms

Defining some terms

Sources for keeping the hands by the sides

Some sources for keeping the hands by the sides

Some criticism on the hadiths of the opposite view

Some criticism on the hadiths of the opposite view

Side notes

Some scholars tried to show that putting one hand on the other is following the way of people of the book at the beginning of Islam, but was no more in use later based on statement such as:

كَأَنِّي أَنْظُرُ إِلَى أَحْبَارِ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ وَاضِعِي أَيْمَانِهِمْ عَلَى شَمَائِلِهِمْ فِي الصَّلَاةِ " (Source: مصنف ابن أبي شيبة musanaf ibn abi Shaybah)

which might be translated:

As if I was looking at (watching) the Rabi's of bani Israel putting their right hands on their left hands in the prayer

This is also one interpretation of the second hadith from al-Muwatta'!

Ibn abi Shaybah in his book has two chapters one quoting ahadith and narrations of qabd and others of irsaal! In which you may find that such people as Abullah ibn az-Zubair, ibn al-Mussyaib, ibn Sireen, al-Hassan al-Basri, Sa'id ibn Jubayr whom followd the later. Many of the qabd narrations seem to confirm that some scholars disliked forms of qabd because that looked like the way people of the book used to do, among them Mujahid (see here in Arabic)

Also irsaal was widely confirmed by the Imam's of shi'a even if ibn Shaybah here presents an opposite narration on the authority of 'Ali ibn abi Talib as an interpretation of verse 2 from surat al-Kawthar (see here in Arabic).

WORK IN PROGRESS

Is praying the hands to the sides really the view of Malik?

Defining some terms

Sources for keeping the hands by the sides

Some criticism on the hadiths of the opposite view

Is praying the hands to the sides really the view of Malik?

Defining some terms

Some sources for keeping the hands by the sides

Some criticism on the hadiths of the opposite view

Side notes

Some scholars tried to show that putting one hand on the other is following the way of people of the book at the beginning of Islam, but was no more in use later based on statement such as:

كَأَنِّي أَنْظُرُ إِلَى أَحْبَارِ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ وَاضِعِي أَيْمَانِهِمْ عَلَى شَمَائِلِهِمْ فِي الصَّلَاةِ " (Source: مصنف ابن أبي شيبة musanaf ibn abi Shaybah)

which might be translated:

As if I was looking at (watching) the Rabi's of bani Israel putting their right hands on their left hands in the prayer

This is also one interpretation of the second hadith from al-Muwatta'!

Ibn abi Shaybah in his book has two chapters one quoting ahadith and narrations of qabd and others of irsaal! In which you may find that such people as Abullah ibn az-Zubair, ibn al-Mussyaib, ibn Sireen, al-Hassan al-Basri, Sa'id ibn Jubayr whom followd the later. Many of the qabd narrations seem to confirm that some scholars disliked forms of qabd because that looked like the way people of the book used to do, among them Mujahid (see here in Arabic)

Also irsaal was widely confirmed by the Imam's of shi'a even if ibn Shaybah here presents an opposite narration on the authority of 'Ali ibn abi Talib as an interpretation of verse 2 from surat al-Kawthar (see here in Arabic).

7 added 432 characters in body
source | link

WORK IN PROGRESS

Is praying the hands to the sides really the view of Malik?

First of all note that the opinion that imam Malik disliked putting the right hand over the left hand is based on the unique statement of his student Abdurrahman ibn al-Qassimibn al-Qassim in al-Mudawana. Earlier scholars of this school (especially hadith specialists) like al-Qadi 'iyad even said that this is a misinterpretation of the statement of ibn al-Qassim, as what was frowned upon is putting one hand on the other in nafl prayer while leaning against a wall or something to keep in position. While ibn 'Abd-al-Barr that almost all narrations quoting a position for the hand quote the right hand over left option (ibn 'abd-al-Barr had shafi'i tendencies).
Other students of Malik like those from Medina didn't confirm this or maybe even held the opinion that putting right hand on left hand is sunnah (those from 'Iraq)!

The view of the Maliki madhhab or the established madhhab is based on mukhtassar KhalilKhalil in which the author pretends that sadl is the preferred way and qabd is disliked. But it doesn't represent the view of all scholars of this school as said before!

Also note that all ahadith in al-Muwatta' of imam Malik which might be used as an evidence for putting one hand on the other have weaknesses and most if not all ahadith on this matter are only quoted in the sunan books, which means they are not that strong!

Defining some terms

Note that some call leaving the hands by the sides (of the leg) al-Irsaal الإرسال or al-Isbaal الإسبال while the malikis often use the term as-Sadl السدل, while they refer to putting the right hand on the left by al-Qabd القبض.

There's also the hadith of abu Humaid al-Sa'idi (in sunan abi Dawod):

Ibn 'Abd al-Barr said that Malik has got the hadith regarding this view from Abdullah ibn al-Hassan!

WORK IN PROGRESS

alAl-Bukhari already criticized the Hadith himself sayingby quoting a corrected verison of the statement of abu Hazim in the passive voice which makes this hadith mursal (disconnected):

قَالَ إِسْمَاعِيلُ يُنْمَى ذَلِكَ‏.‏ وَلَمْ يَقُلْ يَنْمِي‏.‏

And this is the only hadith on qabd compiled by al-Bukhari, but it doesn't reach the condition of musnad hadith which would qualify it as-Sahih according the title of the book! Mulla 'ali al-Qari even assumed that "the order in this hadith" refers to the time of the caliphs not to the time of the Prophet()!

And the other hadith:

'As long as you do not feel ashamed, do whatever you wish', the placing of one hand on the other in prayer (one places the right hand on the left), being quick to break the fast, and delaying the meal before dawn." (al-Muwatta')

Here Malik for once narrated a hadith from a man from 'Iraq and had chosen a bad narrator as Abd al-Karim ibn Abi'l-Mukhariq al-Basri عَبْدِ الْكَرِيمِ بْنِ أَبِي الْمُخَارِقِ الْبَصْرِيِّ was considered as matruk (left out as he was not trustworthy as a narrator). Some said that Malik was blinded by al-Mukhariqs attitude, but this man was not from his location so he didn't know him well enough. An-Nasa'i said "Malik didn't narrate from any weak narrator with the exception of 'Abd al-Karim"! Ibn 'abd al-Barr quoted a statement of Malik: "I was blinded by the frequence of 'Abd-al-Karim's weeping in the mosque"

While imam Muslim also only compiled one single narration with weaknesses in his sahih on this matter:

He saw the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) raising his hands at the time of beginning the prayer and reciting takbir, and according to Hammam (the narrator), the hands were lifted opposite to ears. He (the Holy Prophet) then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. And when he was about to bow down, he brought out his hands from the cloth, and then lifted them, and then recited takbir and bowed down, and when (he came back to the erect position) he recited:" Allah listened to him who praised Him." And when he prostrated, he prostrated between his two palms. (sahih Muslim)

This hadith has three weaknesses:
1. The narrator 'Alqamah ibn Wa'il عَلْقَمَةَ بْنِ وَائِلٍ who is narrating from his father while ibn Hajar said he didn't as he didn't reach the age to be able to narrate before his fathers death! (tahdeedb at-Tahdeeb volume 2 page 5).
2. The different versions from sunan abi Dawod 1, 2, 3 create a confusion.
3. From the matn (the content) as it is contradictory if we check all the narrations of the same narrator.
An other point is that 'Asim ibn Kulaib (a narrator of the versions of abu Dawod) was also considered as weak or unreliable!

Is praying the hands to the sides really the view of Malik?

First of all note that the opinion that imam Malik disliked putting the right hand over the left hand is based on the unique statement of his student Abdurrahman ibn al-Qassim in al-Mudawana. Earlier scholars of this school (especially hadith specialists) like al-Qadi 'iyad even said that this is a misinterpretation of the statement of ibn al-Qassim, as what was frowned upon is putting one hand on the other in nafl prayer while leaning against a wall or something to keep in position. While ibn 'Abd-al-Barr that almost all narrations quoting a position for the hand quote the right hand over left option (ibn 'abd-al-Barr had shafi'i tendencies).
Other students of Malik like those from Medina didn't confirm this or maybe even held the opinion that putting right hand on left hand is sunnah!

The view of the Maliki madhhab or the established madhhab is based on mukhtassar Khalil in which the author pretends that sadl is the preferred way and qabd is disliked. But it doesn't represent the view of all scholars of this school as said before!

Also note that all ahadith in al-Muwatta' of imam Malik which might be used as an evidence for putting one hand on the other have weaknesses and most if not all ahadith on this matter are only quoted in the sunan books, which means they are not that strong!

There's also the hadith of abu Humaid (in sunan abi Dawod):

Ibn 'Abd al-Barr said that Malik has got the hadith regarding this view from Abdullah ibn al-Hassan!

WORK IN PROGRESS

al-Bukhari already criticized the Hadith himself saying:

WORK IN PROGRESS

Is praying the hands to the sides really the view of Malik?

First of all note that the opinion that imam Malik disliked putting the right hand over the left hand is based on the unique statement of his student Abdurrahman ibn al-Qassim in al-Mudawana. Earlier scholars of this school (especially hadith specialists) like al-Qadi 'iyad even said that this is a misinterpretation of the statement of ibn al-Qassim, as what was frowned upon is putting one hand on the other in nafl prayer while leaning against a wall or something to keep in position. While ibn 'Abd-al-Barr that almost all narrations quoting a position for the hand quote the right hand over left option (ibn 'abd-al-Barr had shafi'i tendencies).
Other students of Malik like those from Medina didn't confirm this or maybe even held the opinion that putting right hand on left hand is sunnah (those from 'Iraq)!

The view of the Maliki madhhab or the established madhhab is based on mukhtassar Khalil in which the author pretends that sadl is the preferred way and qabd is disliked. But it doesn't represent the view of all scholars of this school as said before!

Also note that all ahadith in al-Muwatta' of imam Malik which might be used as an evidence for putting one hand on the other have weaknesses and most if not all ahadith on this matter are only quoted in the sunan books, which means they are not that strong!

Defining some terms

Note that some call leaving the hands by the sides (of the leg) al-Irsaal الإرسال or al-Isbaal الإسبال while the malikis often use the term as-Sadl السدل, while they refer to putting the right hand on the left by al-Qabd القبض.

There's also the hadith of abu Humaid al-Sa'idi (in sunan abi Dawod):

Ibn 'Abd al-Barr said that Malik has got the hadith regarding this view from Abdullah ibn al-Hassan!

Al-Bukhari already criticized the Hadith himself by quoting a corrected verison of the statement of abu Hazim in the passive voice which makes this hadith mursal (disconnected):

قَالَ إِسْمَاعِيلُ يُنْمَى ذَلِكَ‏.‏ وَلَمْ يَقُلْ يَنْمِي‏.‏

And this is the only hadith on qabd compiled by al-Bukhari, but it doesn't reach the condition of musnad hadith which would qualify it as-Sahih according the title of the book! Mulla 'ali al-Qari even assumed that "the order in this hadith" refers to the time of the caliphs not to the time of the Prophet()!

And the other hadith:

'As long as you do not feel ashamed, do whatever you wish', the placing of one hand on the other in prayer (one places the right hand on the left), being quick to break the fast, and delaying the meal before dawn." (al-Muwatta')

Here Malik for once narrated a hadith from a man from 'Iraq and had chosen a bad narrator as Abd al-Karim ibn Abi'l-Mukhariq al-Basri عَبْدِ الْكَرِيمِ بْنِ أَبِي الْمُخَارِقِ الْبَصْرِيِّ was considered as matruk (left out as he was not trustworthy as a narrator). Some said that Malik was blinded by al-Mukhariqs attitude, but this man was not from his location so he didn't know him well enough. An-Nasa'i said "Malik didn't narrate from any weak narrator with the exception of 'Abd al-Karim"! Ibn 'abd al-Barr quoted a statement of Malik: "I was blinded by the frequence of 'Abd-al-Karim's weeping in the mosque"

While imam Muslim also only compiled one single narration with weaknesses in his sahih on this matter:

He saw the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) raising his hands at the time of beginning the prayer and reciting takbir, and according to Hammam (the narrator), the hands were lifted opposite to ears. He (the Holy Prophet) then wrapped his hands in his cloth and placed his right hand over his left hand. And when he was about to bow down, he brought out his hands from the cloth, and then lifted them, and then recited takbir and bowed down, and when (he came back to the erect position) he recited:" Allah listened to him who praised Him." And when he prostrated, he prostrated between his two palms. (sahih Muslim)

This hadith has three weaknesses:
1. The narrator 'Alqamah ibn Wa'il عَلْقَمَةَ بْنِ وَائِلٍ who is narrating from his father while ibn Hajar said he didn't as he didn't reach the age to be able to narrate before his fathers death! (tahdeedb at-Tahdeeb volume 2 page 5).
2. The different versions from sunan abi Dawod 1, 2, 3 create a confusion.
3. From the matn (the content) as it is contradictory if we check all the narrations of the same narrator.
An other point is that 'Asim ibn Kulaib (a narrator of the versions of abu Dawod) was also considered as weak or unreliable!

6 added 432 characters in body
source | link

Some criticism on the hadiths of the opposite view

Let' start with the two ahadith from al-Muwatta'

"People used to be ordered to place their right hands on their left forearms in the prayer."
Abu Hazim added, "I know for sure that Sahl traces that back to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." (al-Muwatta' and sahih al-Bukhari)

al-Bukhari already criticized the Hadith himself saying:

Some criticism on the hadiths of the opposite view

Let' start with the two ahadith from al-Muwatta'

"People used to be ordered to place their right hands on their left forearms in the prayer."
Abu Hazim added, "I know for sure that Sahl traces that back to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace." (al-Muwatta' and sahih al-Bukhari)

al-Bukhari already criticized the Hadith himself saying:

5 added 432 characters in body
source | link
4 added 151 characters in body
source | link
3 added 402 characters in body
source | link
2 added 402 characters in body
source | link
1
source | link