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I have been given a few answers in the comments but no answers with any quotes. It would be nice to see the text of the Quran people are referring to.

There is much misinformation revolving around the violent persons in the middle east who claim to be Islam and some even claim that they are doing what Allah wants.

Can their actions be justified by what is written in the Quran? Are there parts in the Quran that urge the Muslim to hurt, cheat, lie to, steal from or otherwise persecute the non-Muslim? In the least, are there parts that say it is okay to do those things to an infidel, but it is not required

If not then can their actions be condemned by what is written in the Quran?

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No. It does not. Can you bring the verses that you think are used by those people to justify their actions? Islam urges people to fulfill one's trust, speak the truth even if others don't like it, and to protect the one who seeks asylum (even if he is non-muslim). –  Abdullah Feb 17 '13 at 7:10
    
@Abdullah I have no verses. Just misinformation from people who likely do not know and only wish to villainize people they do not like. I here things like this on TV, in emails, and the loud mouths at parties. Perhaps you can give the verses you are talking about? –  fredsbend Feb 17 '13 at 7:29
    
Islam does not urges persecution of infidels but urges to fight them only at the time of war. The second case is it urges to fight them in case of getting Jazya (tax on non Muslims). Other than that there is no persecution on non Muslims. They are treated exactly as Muslim. Their laws are respected. –  muslim1 Feb 17 '13 at 17:53
    
@TheTruthSeaker When is a time of war, then? Do not these same violent people say that they are at war? Is that how they justify it? What does the Quran say about war then? So Jazya is a tax on non-Muslims. When can that be placed? But does the Quran say anything like "Don't steal, but it's okay to steal from the Infidel?" Does it have a list of moral laws like the Christian Bible has the ten commandments? –  fredsbend Feb 17 '13 at 23:11
    
@fredsbend the time of War is the actual war when the leader declares war. But these verse are not very clear, they do not explicitly mention ' in the time of war' etc. It is simply believed that these verse are for War only and for that time only. Nevertheless some Muslim do take it literally because of ignorance. But that case is very rare. Generally a non Muslim will never ever be prosecuted by Muslim, except he insults the prophet. He has full rights to practice his own religion. –  muslim1 Feb 18 '13 at 0:14
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2 Answers

Historically, non-Muslims were under the protection of Muslim nations in early Islam, and the Jizya tax was less than standard taxes neighboring countries.

See:

Many of the "Islamic" nations after the Rashidun Caliphate did persecute non-Muslims, but how can it be Islamic if the Prophet and those who followed him most closely didn't do it?

However, the kind treatment of non-Muslims often extended only to dhimmis. "Dhimmi" was originally considered People of the Book (Wiki entry), i.e. Jews, Christians, other monotheists who worshipped the same God. Other Islamic rulers later extended this term to mean Hindus, Buddhists, and all non-Muslims.

I've read somewhere that non-dhimmi non-Muslims had to be persecuted and not given freedom of religion, hence why Muslim leaders were eager to consider all non-Muslims as dhimmis. But can't find the source for this yet.

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Excellent answer. I would love to see the sources for that. –  fredsbend Feb 19 '13 at 21:02
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Read the first ten Ayah in surah Tauwbeh in the following link and I hope you get at least an answer which solve 40% of your question.

Unfortunately I couldn't find any good translation in English !. Read only translation from (Dr. Mohsin - Mohsin khan)

http://quranexplorer.com/index/Sura_009_Al_Tawba_REPENTANCE_DISPENSATION.aspx

As you can see in the verse 5 have mentioned to kill and I can't see it in two other translators.

Also in the verse 12 and 13 it's told again to kill and this time all of them escaped 'kill' from the translated text.

And all your named actions (kill-cheat-steal) any other kind is allowed to Muslims if it's [ Al-Qisas (the Law of Equality in punishment].

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