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How many Rakat in Salat from Hanafi and other Sunni schools opinion?

I would like to know how many Rakats that is Fard/Must for Fajr, Zuhr, Asr, Maghrib and Isha.

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What exactly do you mean by "Salafi" ? It is not a Madhab and there several groups summed up with this "naming" which have differing opinion among each other! –  Yahia Feb 10 '13 at 17:28

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up vote 6 down vote accepted

There is an agreement among All Sunni schools of fiqh about the number of Raka'at in Fardh salat. All agree that:

  • Fajr: two raka'at
  • Dhuhr: four raka'at
  • Asr: four raka'at
  • Maghrib: three raka'at
  • Isha': four raka'at

The prophet said:

Narrated Abu Sulaiman and Malik bin Huwairith: We came to the Prophet () and we were (a few) young men of approximately equal age and stayed with him for twenty nights. Then he thought that we were anxious for our families, and he asked us whom we had left behind to look after our families, and we told him. He was kindhearted and merciful, so he said, "Return to your families and teach them (religious knowledge) and order them (to do good deeds) and offer your prayers in the way you saw me offering my prayers, and when the stated time for the prayer becomes due, then one of you should pronounce its call (i.e. the Adhan), and the eldest of you should lead you in prayer.

حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ، حَدَّثَنَا أَيُّوبُ، عَنْ أَبِي قِلاَبَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي سُلَيْمَانَ، مَالِكِ بْنِ الْحُوَيْرِثِ قَالَ أَتَيْنَا النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم وَنَحْنُ شَبَبَةٌ مُتَقَارِبُونَ، فَأَقَمْنَا عِنْدَهُ عِشْرِينَ لَيْلَةً، فَظَنَّ أَنَّا اشْتَقْنَا أَهْلَنَا، وَسَأَلَنَا عَمَّنْ تَرَكْنَا فِي أَهْلِنَا، فَأَخْبَرْنَاهُ، وَكَانَ رَفِيقًا رَحِيمًا فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ ارْجِعُوا إِلَى أَهْلِيكُمْ فَعَلِّمُوهُمْ وَمُرُوهُمْ، وَصَلُّوا كَمَا رَأَيْتُمُونِي أُصَلِّي، وَإِذَا حَضَرَتِ الصَّلاَةُ فَلْيُؤَذِّنْ لَكُمْ أَحَدُكُمْ، ثُمَّ لِيَؤُمَّكُمْ أَكْبَرُكُمْ ‏"‏‏.‏

[Bukhari].

The way that the prophet offered prayers, including the prayers numbers, is reported from crowds by crowds... etc until the time of the Prophet, so there could be no mistake in the reports of crowds.

Despite, there are Hadiths that mention the number of raka'at of Fardh prayers. Here you two hadiths which together show the number of raka'at of Fardh prayers:

Narrated 'Aisha: Originally, two rak'at were prescribed in every prayer. When the Prophet () migrated (to Medina) four rak'at were enjoined, while the journey prayer remained unchanged(i.e. two rak'at).

حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا يَزِيدُ بْنُ زُرَيْعٍ، حَدَّثَنَا مَعْمَرٌ، عَنِ الزُّهْرِيِّ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ ـ رضى الله عنها ـ قَالَتْ فُرِضَتِ الصَّلاَةُ رَكْعَتَيْنِ، ثُمَّ هَاجَرَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَفُرِضَتْ أَرْبَعًا، وَتُرِكَتْ صَلاَةُ السَّفَرِ عَلَى الأُولَى‏.‏ تَابَعَهُ عَبْدُ الرَّزَّاقِ عَنْ مَعْمَرٍ‏.‏

[Bukhari].

And this:

Narrated 'Aisha: Originally, two rak'at were prescribed in every prayer. When the Prophet () migrated (to Medina) two raka'at were added for each prayer except Maghrib because it's odd and (except for) morinig prayer because it's recitation is (usually) long, and he performed the previous (i.e. two raka'at) salat if he traveled.

1626 ( أخبرناه ) أبو عبد الله الحافظ ، وأبو محمد بن أبي حامد المقرئ قالا : ثنا أبو العباس محمد بن يعقوب ، ثنا محمد بن سنان ، ثنا بكار بن عبد الله بن محمد بن سيرين ، ثنا داود بن أبي هند عن عامر عن مسروق ، عن عائشة قالت : إن أول ما فرضت الصلاة ركعتين ، فلما قدم نبي الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم - المدينة واطمأن زاد ركعتين غير المغرب لأنها وتر ، وصلاة الغداة تطول قراءتها قالت : وكان إذا سافر صلى صلاته الأولى .

[Sunan Baihaqi].

Also I could collect some hadiths that mention the numbers of each Fardh prayer individually, here are they:

  • Fajr: Two raka'at.

    It was narrated that Aishah said: "The Messenger of Allah () used to pray eleven rak'ahs at night between finishing Isha' prayer and Fajr, apart from the two rak'ahs of Fajr, and he would prostrate for as long as it takes one of you to recite fifty verses. (Sahih)

    أَخْبَرَنَا يُوسُفُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا حَجَّاجٌ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا لَيْثٌ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي عُقَيْلٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عُرْوَةَ، عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يُصَلِّي إِحْدَى عَشْرَةَ رَكْعَةً فِيمَا بَيْنَ أَنْ يَفْرُغَ مِنْ صَلاَةِ الْعِشَاءِ إِلَى الْفَجْرِ بِاللَّيْلِ سِوَى رَكْعَتَىِ الْفَجْرِ وَيَسْجُدُ قَدْرَ مَا يَقْرَأُ أَحَدُكُمْ خَمْسِينَ آيَةً ‏.‏

    [Sunan an-Nasa'i]

  • Dhuhr: Four raka'at.

    Narrated 'Abdullah bin Abi Qatada: My father said, "The Prophet () uses to recite Al-Fatiha followed by another Sura in the first two rak'at of the prayer and used to recite only Al-Fatiha in the last two rak'at of the Zuhr prayer. Sometimes a verse or so was audible and he used to prolong the first rak'a more than the second and used to do the same in the `Asr and Fajr prayers."

    حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنَا هَمَّامٌ، عَنْ يَحْيَى، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ يَقْرَأُ فِي الظُّهْرِ فِي الأُولَيَيْنِ بِأُمِّ الْكِتَابِ وَسُورَتَيْنِ، وَفِي الرَّكْعَتَيْنِ الأُخْرَيَيْنِ بِأُمِّ الْكِتَابِ، وَيُسْمِعُنَا الآيَةَ، وَيُطَوِّلُ فِي الرَّكْعَةِ الأُولَى مَا لاَ يُطَوِّلُ فِي الرَّكْعَةِ الثَّانِيَةِ، وَهَكَذَا فِي الْعَصْرِ وَهَكَذَا فِي الصُّبْحِ‏.‏

    [Bukhari]

  • Asr: Four raka'at.

    Imran b. Husain reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said three rak'ahs of the 'Asr prayer and then got up and went to his apartment. A man possessing large arms stood up and said: Messenger of Allah, bias the player been shortened? He came out angrily, and said the rak'ah which he had omitted and then gave salutation. then performed two prostrations of forgetfulness and then gave salutation.

    وَحَدَّثَنَا إِسْحَاقُ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ الْوَهَّابِ الثَّقَفِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا خَالِدٌ، - وَهُوَ الْحَذَّاءُ - عَنْ أَبِي قِلاَبَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي الْمُهَلَّبِ، عَنْ عِمْرَانَ بْنِ الْحُصَيْنِ، قَالَ سَلَّمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي ثَلاَثِ رَكَعَاتٍ مِنَ الْعَصْرِ ثُمَّ قَامَ فَدَخَلَ الْحُجْرَةَ فَقَامَ رَجُلٌ بَسِيطُ الْيَدَيْنِ فَقَالَ أَقُصِرَتِ الصَّلاَةُ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ‏.‏ فَخَرَجَ مُغْضَبًا فَصَلَّى الرَّكْعَةَ الَّتِي كَانَ تَرَكَ ثُمَّ سَلَّمَ ثُمَّ سَجَدَ سَجْدَتَىِ السَّهْوِ ثُمَّ سَلَّمَ ‏.‏

    [Muslim]

  • Maghrib: Three Raka'at.

    Ibn Umar narrated: "I prayed with the Prophet both, while a resident and while traveling. So I prayed four for Zuhr with him as a resident, and two Rak'ah after it. I prayed two Rak'ah for Zuhr with him while traveling and two Rak'ah after it, and two Rak'ah for Asr, and he did not pray anything after it. Maghrib while a resident and traveling is the same; three Rak'ah, it is not decreased as a resident nor while traveling. It is Witr of the day, and after it are two Rak'ah." (Da'if)

    حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عُبَيْدٍ الْمُحَارِبِيُّ، - يَعْنِي الْكُوفِيَّ حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ هَاشِمٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي لَيْلَى، عَنْ عَطِيَّةَ، وَنَافِعٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ صَلَّيْتُ مَعَ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي الْحَضَرِ وَالسَّفَرِ فَصَلَّيْتُ مَعَهُ فِي الْحَضَرِ الظُّهْرَ أَرْبَعًا وَبَعْدَهَا رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَصَلَّيْتُ مَعَهُ فِي السَّفَرِ الظُّهْرَ رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَبَعْدَهَا رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَالْعَصْرَ رَكْعَتَيْنِ وَلَمْ يُصَلِّ بَعْدَهَا شَيْئًا وَالْمَغْرِبَ فِي الْحَضَرِ وَالسَّفَرِ سَوَاءً ثَلاَثَ رَكَعَاتٍ لاَ تَنْقُصُ فِي الْحَضَرِ وَلاَ فِي السَّفَرِ وَهِيَ وِتْرُ النَّهَارِ وَبَعْدَهَا رَكْعَتَيْنِ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ ‏.‏ سَمِعْتُ مُحَمَّدًا يَقُولُ مَا رَوَى ابْنُ أَبِي لَيْلَى حَدِيثًا أَعْجَبَ إِلَىَّ مِنْ هَذَا وَلاَ أَرْوِي عَنْهُ شَيْئًا ‏.‏

    [Jami` at-Tirmidhi]

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Thanks, my understanding that Sunnat Mokadda, Nafl and Wajib are optional but it is beneficial? –  I'll-Be-Back Feb 10 '13 at 20:09
    
@I'll-Be-Back yes. –  Yahia Feb 10 '13 at 20:44
    
@I'll-Be-Back: Yes that's right. –  Tamer Shlash Feb 10 '13 at 21:45

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