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Did prophet Mohammad p.b.u.h die naturally or he was killed and is a martyr?

Indeed, someone emailed to me and asked me about this issue, a question similar to this Q&A or this one:

how did our prophet die ... my friend said he died naturally but I said he passed away due to a poison that a Jewish woman added to his meal.

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4 Answers

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The other users have almost all said something about the event that you have addressed inside the quoted paragraph in your question, The Jewish woman and poisoned meat. Shia Muslims have also told the same story but the details are rather different, and as it is directly related to your question (if the Jewish woman poisoned the holy prophet --peace be upon him and his household-- or not) let me quote a Hadeeth from the Ahlul Bayt --peace be upon them-- that clarifies that story completely:

from: التفسير المنسوب إلى الإمام العسكري، صفحه 177-179

Also you can find it in: البحار، جلد 17، صفحه 317 ضمن ح 15 and in: مستدرك الوسائل، 3جلد، صفحه 84، ح 10 و صفحه 8 ح 1 - قطعة

[حديث تكلم الذراع المسمومة مع النبي ص:]

فإن رسول الله ص لما رجع من خيبر إلى المدينة و قد فتح الله له جاءته امرأة من اليهود قد أظهرت الإيمان، و معها ذراع مسمومة مشوية فوضعتها بين يديه، فقال رسول الله ص: ما هذه! قالت له: بأبي أنت و أمي يا رسول الله همني أمرك في خروجك إلى خيبر، فإني علمتهم رجالا جلدا، و هذا حمل كان لي ربيته أعده كالولد لي، و علمت أن أحب الطعام إليك الشواء، و أحب الشواء إليك الذراع، فنذرت لله لئن [سلمك الله منهم لأذبحنه- و لأطعمنك من شواء ذراعه، و الآن فقد] سلمك الله منهم و أظفرك بهم، فجئت بهذا لأفي بنذري. و كان مع رسول الله ص البراء بن معرور و علي بن أبي طالب ع، فقال رسول الله ص: ائتوا بخبز. فأتي به فمد البراء بن معرور يده- و أخذ منه لقمة فوضعها في فيه. فقال له علي بن أبي طالب ع: يا براء لا تتقدم [على‏] رسول الله ص. فقال له البراء و كان أعرابيا-: يا علي كأنك تبخل رسول الله ص! فقال علي ع: ما أبخل رسول الله ص، و لكني أبجله و أوقره، ليس لي و لا لك و لا لأحد من خلق الله- أن يتقدم رسول الله ص بقول، و لا فعل، و لا أكل و لا شرب. فقال البراء: ما أبخل رسول الله ص. فقال علي ع: ما لذلك قلت، و لكن هذا جاءت به هذه و كانت يهودية، و لسنا نعرف حالها، فإذا أكلته بأمر رسول الله ص فهو الضامن لسلامتك منه، و إذا أكلته بغير إذنه وكلت إلى نفسك. يقول علي ع هذا و البراء يلوك اللقمة- إذ أنطق الله الذراع فقالت: يا رسول الله لا تأكلني فإني مسمومة- و سقط البراء في سكرات الموت، و لم يرفع إلا ميتا. فقال رسول الله ص: ايتوني بالمرأة. فأتي بها، فقال لها: ما حملك على ما صنعت فقالت: وترتني وترا عظيما: قتلت أبي و عمي و أخي و زوجي و ابني- ففعلت هذا و قلت: إن كان ملكا فسأنتقم منه، و إن كان نبيا كما يقول، و قد وعد فتح مكة و النصر و الظفر، فسيمنعه الله و يحفظه منه و لن يضره. فقال رسول الله ص: أيتها المرأة لقد صدقت. ثم قال لها رسول الله ص: لا يضرك موت البراء فإنما امتحنه الله لتقدمه بين يدي رسول الله ص و لو كان بأمر رسول الله أكل منه لكفى شره و سمه. ثم قال رسول الله ص: ادع لي فلانا [و فلانا] و ذكر قوما من خيار أصحابه- منهم سلمان و المقداد و عمار و صهيب و أبو ذر و بلال و قوم من سائر الصحابة تمام عشرة و علي ع حاضر معهم. فقال ص: اقعدوا و تحلقوا عليه. فوضع رسول الله ص يده على الذراع المسمومة و نفث عليه، و قال: « [بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ‏] بسم الله الشافي، بسم الله الكافي، بسم الله المعافي، بسم الله الذي لا يضر مع اسمه شي‏ء، و لا داء- في الأرض، و لا في السماء وَ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ». ثم قال ص: كلوا على اسم الله. فأكل رسول الله ص، و أكلوا حتى شبعوا، ثم شربوا عليه الماء، ثم أمر بها فحبست. فلما كان في اليوم الثاني جي‏ء بها- فقال ص: أ ليس هؤلاء أكلوا [ذلك‏] السم بحضرتك فكيف رأيت دفع الله عن نبيه و صحابته فقالت: يا رسول الله كنت إلى الآن في نبوتك شاكة، و الآن فقد أيقنت أنك رسول الله ص حقا، فأنا أشهد أن لا إله إلا الله وحده لا شريك له، و أنك عبده و رسوله [حقا] و حسن إسلامها.

[Hadeeth of poisonous cooked ship talking with the holy prophet --peace be upon him and his household:]

The holy prophet --peace be upon him and his household-- when he came back from Kheybar to Medinah and he had won the war in the will of Allah, came in a Jewish woman and pretended like stated that she has converted to Islam, and with her was a poisonous [cooked] sheep that put it in front of him. The holy prophet asked: what's this? She answered: my father and mother be sacrificed for you o apostle of Allah, your exist toward Kheybar worried me as I knew them as being strong, and this sheep I grew it up like my kids, and I found out that the best meal that you like is sheep, so I vowed for the sake of Allah that if Allah will keep you safe I will slaughter this and cook it for you and now I have done it. And were there with the holy prophet --peace be upon him and his household-- Al-Baraa' ibn ma3rur and Ali ibn Abi-talib --peace be upon him--, thus the apostle of Allah --peace be upon him-- said: bring to us bread, so bread was brought, then Baraa' ibn Ma3rur extended his hand and took from it a morsel. So Ali ibn Abi-talib --peace be upon him-- said to him: O Baraa' do not begin before the apostle of Allah --peace be upon him and his household. So said Baraa': O Ali it seems that you think the apostle of Allah is a miser!? So answered Ali --peace be upon him: I don't think him be miser, but know him as great and respect him, neither me nor you nor any creature of Allah should begin before him in speech and deed and eating and drinking. So stated Baraa': I do not think the apostle of Allah --peace be upon him and his household-- be miser. So stated Ali --peace be upon him: I din't say what I said in that regard, but this sheep has been brought by this woman who has been a Jew and we do not know her how she is. So if you eat after he allows you he guarantees for you your health and if you eat without his permission you eat with your own guarantee. Ali --peace be upon him-- was saying this and Baraa' was chewing the morsel in his mouth that suddenly Allah made the sheep talk and it said: O apostle of Allah do not eat me as I have been poisonous, and Baraa' fell into the stupor of death, and he was dead when was lifted. Then said the apostle of Allah --peace be upon him and his household: bring her to me. So they brought her to him. He asked her: why did you do that? She said: you oppressed me a huge oppression, you killed my father and my uncle and my brother and my husband and my son so I did such and said to myself if he is a king this way I will take revenge from him and if he is a prophet as he claims, then he has been given good tidings about the conquest of Mecca and victory so that Allah will prevent him from the meal and will protect him against it and he will not be injured. So stated the apostle of Allah --peace be upon him: O woman you told the truth, then he added that the death of Baraa' is not upto you, it is truth and noway false that Allah examined him about surpassing the apostle of Allah and if he was to eat by the command of the apostle of Allah certainly Allah was protecting him from the meal and its poison. Then said the apostle of Allah --peace be upon him and his household-- that call toward him some of his best companions among whom were Salmaan and Meqdaad and Amaar and Sohayb and Abudhar and Bilal and a group of other companions altogether they were 10 and Ali --peace be upon him-- was among them. So he said --peace be upon him and his household: Sit down around this meal. Then he put down his hand over the poisonous sheep and blew over it and said: "In the name of Allah the most Gracious the most Merciful, in the name of Allah the Healer, in the name of Allah the Sufficient, in the name of Allah the Pardoner, in the name of Allah with whose name nothing does hurt and no disease in Earth nor in heaven, and He is the Hearer the Knower". Then after he said --peace be upon him and his household: eat in the name of Allah, and the apostle of Allah --peace be upon him and his household-- ate and they all ate until they were filled, then drank water on it, then ordered the woman to be imprisoned. The next day she was brought to him that he said --peace be upon him and his household: didn't these people eat poison in your presence? So how did you find that Allah protected His prophet and his companions? She said: O apostle of Allah till now I was in doubt about your prophecy and now I have made sure that it is true and noway false that you are the true apostle of Allah, thus I confess that no god exist with Allah, He is unique and has no partner, and that is true and noway false that you are His servant and apostle rightly, and her Islam became good.

This story states that the meal was indeed poisoned and that the holy prophet --peace be upon him and his household-- ate from that poisonous meal together with some best of his companions (note that none of them scared even slightly after they assure the meal is certainly poisonous and the poison is strong enough to kill the person very shortly, and they just obeyed the apostle of Allah, and quite clear from the Hadeeth that they were selectively chosen among all the companions of the holy prophet) but they were all in the protection of Allah.

The story of the Jewish woman providing a poisonous meal is thus very similar to the story of Belqays from Yemen sending a precious gift to Solomon --peace be upon him-- to check if he is merely a ruler or a prophet of God, and if he was a king they had plan to attack them and kill him! You can find this in [27:35].

That the holy prophet --peace be upon him-- introduced the death of Baraa' a will of Allah due to him surpassing the apostle of Allah --peace be upon him-- is very much like what we read in a part of صلوات شعبانیة recommended for reading during the month of Sha3baan:

اَللّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلى‏ مُحَمَّدٍ وَآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ شَجَرَةِ النُّبُوَّةِ، وَمَوْضِعِ الرِّسالَةِ، وَمُخْتَلَفِ الْمَلائِکَةِ وَمَعْدِنِ الْعِلْمِ، وَاَهْلِ بَیْتِ الْوَحْىِ اَللّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلى‏ مُحَمَّدٍ و آل‏مُحَمَّدٍ الْفُلْکِ الْجارِیَةِ، فِى اللُّجَجِ الْغامِرَةِ، یَأْمَنُ مَنْ رَکِبَها، وَیَغْرَقُ‏ مَنْ تَرَکَهَا، الْمُتَقَدِّمُ لَهُمْ مارِقٌ، وَالْمُتَاَخِّرُ عَنْهُمْ زاهِقٌ وَالّلازِمُ لَهُمْ‏‏لاحِقٌ،

O’ Allah! Bestow Your blessing on Muhammad and his progeny-the tree of prophet hood and the afrode of Your Messages, the place of visits of the angels, the mine of Your Knowledge and the people of the Holy House of revelation. O` Allah I Bestow Your blessing on Mohammad and his progeny who are a boat sailing in the deep waters of fathomless sea. Safe is he who boarded it and drowned is he who discarded it. Those who went ahead of them were misled and those legged behind them were ruined and those who adhered to them were united with them.

Anyway, such a story is by no means strange as two similar stories happened that this time I only bring the Arabic version of their Ahadeeth for the sake of brevity and their contents are somewhat like the story just told above, although these times the poison in meal was intentional to kill the holy prophet --peace be upon him and his household-- due to hypocrisy of Abdullah ibn Ubayy and his group and not due to a doubt in his prophecy:

source: التفسير المنسوب إلى الإمام الحسن العسكري عليه السلام، ص: 190-194

وَ أَمَّا قَلْبُ اللَّهِ السَّمَّ عَلَى الْيَهُودِ الَّذِينَ قَصَدُوهُ [بِهِ‏] وَ أَهْلَكَهُمُ اللَّهُ بِهِ- فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص لَمَّا ظَهَرَ بِالْمَدِينَةِ اشْتَدَّ حَسَدُ «ابْنِ أُبَيٍّ» لَهُ، فَدَبَّرَ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يَحْفِرَ لَهُ حَفِيرَةًفِي مَجْلِسٍ مِنْ مَجَالِسِ دَارِهِ، وَ يَبْسُطَ فَوْقَهَا بِسَاطاً، وَ يَنْصِبَ فِي أَسْفَلِ الْحَفِيرَةِ أَسِنَّةَ رِمَاحٍ وَ نَصَبَ سَكَاكِينَ مَسْمُومَةً، وَ شَدَّ أَحَدَ جَوَانِبِ الْبِسَاطِ وَ الْفِرَاشِ إِلَى الْحَائِطِ لِيَدْخُلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَ خَوَاصُّهُ مَعَ عَلِيٍّ ع، فَإِذَا وَضَعَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص رِجْلَهُ عَلَى الْبِسَاطِ وَقَعَ فِي الْحَفِيرَةِ، وَ كَانَ قَدْ نَصَبَ فِي دَارِهِ، وَ خَبَأَ رِجَالًا بِسُيُوفٍ مَشْهُورَةٍ يَخْرُجُونَ عَلَى عَلِيٍّ ع وَ مَنْ مَعَهُ- عِنْدَ وُقُوعِ مُحَمَّدٍ ص فِي الْحَفِيرَةِ فَيَقْتُلُونَهُمْ بِهَا وَ دَبَّرَ أَنَّهُ إِنْ لَمْ يَنْشَطْ لِلْقُعُودِ عَلَى ذَلِكَ الْبِسَاطِ- أَنْ يُطْعِمُوهُ مِنْ طَعَامِهِمُ الْمَسْمُومِ لِيَمُوتَ هُوَ وَ أَصْحَابُهُ مَعَهُ جَمِيعاً. فَجَاءَهُ جَبْرَئِيلُ ع وَ أَخْبَرَهُ بِذَلِكَ، وَ قَالَ لَهُ: إِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْمُرُكَ أَنْ تَقْعُدَ حَيْثُ يُقْعِدُكَ وَ تَأْكُلَ مِمَّا يُطْعِمُكَ، فَإِنَّهُ مُظْهِرٌ عَلَيْكَ آيَاتِهِ، وَ مُهْلِكٌ أَكْثَرَ مَنْ تَوَاطَأَ عَلَى ذَلِكَ فِيكَ. فَدَخَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَ قَعَدَ عَلَى الْبِسَاطِ، وَ قَعَدُوا عَنْ يَمِينِهِ وَ شِمَالِهِ وَ حَوَالَيْهِ، وَ لَمْ يَقَعْ فِي الْحَفِيرَةِ، فَتَعَجَّبَ ابْنُ أُبَيٍّ وَ نَظَرَ، فَإِذَا قَدْ صَارَ مَا تَحْتَ الْبِسَاطِ أَرْضاً مُلْتَئِمَةً. وَ أَتَى رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص وَ عَلِيّاً ع وَ صَحْبَهُمَا بِالطَّعَامِ الْمَسْمُومِ، فَلَمَّا أَرَادَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَضْعَ يَدِهِ فِي الطَّعَامِ- قَالَ: يَا عَلِيُّ ارْقِ هَذَا الطَّعَامَ بِالرُّقْيَةِ النَّافِعَةِ. فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ ع: «بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الشَّافِي، بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الْكَافِي، بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الْمُعَافِي، بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الَّذِي لَا يَضُرُّ مَعَ اسْمِهِ شَيْ‏ءٌ [وَ لَا دَاءٌ] فِي الْأَرْضِ وَ لَا فِي السَّمَاءِ، وَ هُوَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ». ثُمَّ أَكَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص وَ عَلِيٌّ ع وَ مَنْ مَعَهُمَا حَتَّى شَبِعُوا. ثُمَّ جَاءَ أَصْحَابُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أُبَيٍّ وَ خَوَاصُّهُ، فَأَكَلُوا فَضَلَاتِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص‏ وَ صَحْبِهِ، ظَنّاً مِنْهُمْ أَنَّهُ قَدْ غَلِطَ وَ لَمْ يَجْعَلْ فِيهِ سَمّاً لَمَّا رَأَوْا مُحَمَّداً وَ صَحْبَهُ لَمْ يُصِبْهُمْ مَكْرُوهٌ. وَ جَاءَتْ بِنْتُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أُبَيٍّ إِلَى ذَلِكَ الْمَجْلِسِ- الْمَحْفُورِ تَحْتَهُ، الْمَنْصُوبِ فِيهِ مَا نُصِبَ، وَ هِيَ كَانَتْ دَبَّرَتْ ذَلِكَ، وَ نَظَرَتْ فَإِذَا مَا تَحْتَ الْبِسَاطِ أَرْضٌ مُلْتَئِمَةٌ، فَجَلَسَتْ عَلَى الْبِسَاطِ وَاثِقَةً، فَأَعَادَ اللَّهُ الْحَفِيرَةَ بِمَا فِيهَا فَسَقَطَتْ فِيهَا- وَ هَلَكَتْ فَوَقَعَتِ الصَّيْحَةُ. فَقَالَ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ أُبَيٍّ: إِيَّاكُمْ [وَ] أَنْ تَقُولُوا إِنَّهَا سَقَطَتْ فِي الْحَفِيرَةِ، فَيَعْلَمَ مُحَمَّدٌ مَا كُنَّا دَبَّرْنَاهُ عَلَيْهِ. فَبَكَوْا [وَ قَالُوا:] مَاتَتِ الْعَرُوسُ- وَ بِعِلَّةِ عُرْسِهَا كَانُوا دَعَوْا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ص وَ مَاتَ الْقَوْمُ الَّذِينَ أَكَلُوا فَضْلَةَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص. فَسَأَلَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ عَنْ سَبَبِ مَوْتِ الِابْنَةِ وَ الْقَوْمِ فَقَالَ ابْنُ أُبَيٍّ: سَقَطَتْ مِنَ السَّطْحِ، وَ لَحِقَ الْقَوْمُ تُخَمَةً. فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص: [اللَّهُ‏] أَعْلَمُ بِمَا ذَا مَاتُوا. وَ تَغَافَلَ عَنْهُمْ .

[نَظِيرُ الْمُعْجِزَةِ الْمَذْكُورَةِ لِعَلِيٍّ ع:]

قَالَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ الْحُسَيْنِ ع وَ كَانَ نَظِيرُهَا لِعَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ ع مَعَ جَدِّ بْنِ قَيْسٍ وَ كَانَ تَالِيَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أُبَيٍّ فِي النِّفَاقِ، كَمَا أَنَّ عَلِيّاً تَالِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ ص فِي الْكَمَالِ وَ الْجَمَالِ وَ الْجَلَالِ. وَ تَفَرَّدَ جَدٌّ مَعَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أُبَيٍّ بَعْدَ هَذِهِ الْقِصَّةِ الَّتِي سَلَّمَ اللَّهُ مِنْهَا مُحَمَّداً وَ صَحْبَهُ- وَ قَلَبَهَا عَلَى عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أُبَيٍّ فَقَالَ لَهُ: إِنَّ مُحَمَّداً ص مَاهِرٌ بِالسِّحْرِ، وَ لَيْسَ عَلِيٌّ ع كَمِثْلِهِ، فَاتَّخِذْ أَنْتَ يَا جَدُّ لِعَلِيٍّ دَعْوَةً- بَعْدَ أَنْ تَتَقَدَّمَ فِي تَنْبِيشِ أَصْلِ حَائِطِ بُسْتَانِكَ، ثُمَّ يَقِفُ رِجَالٌ خَلْفَ الْحَائِطِ- بِخَشَبٍ يَعْتَمِدُونَ بِهَا عَلَى الْحَائِطِ، وَ يَدْفَعُونَهُ عَلَى عَلِيٍّ ع [وَ مَنْ مَعَهُ‏] لِيَمُوتُوا تَحْتَهُ. فَجَلَسَ عَلِيٌّ ع تَحْتَ الْحَائِطِ فَتَلَقَّاهُ بِيُسْرَاهُ وَ دَفَعَهُ وَ كَانَ الطَّعَامُ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ ع: كُلُوا بِسْمِ اللَّهِ. وَ جَعَلَ يَأْكُلُ مَعَهُمْ حَتَّى أَكَلُوا وَ فَرَغُوا، وَ هُوَ يُمْسِكُ الْحَائِطَ بِشِمَالِهِ- وَ الْحَائِطُ ثَلَاثُونَ ذِرَاعاً طُولُهُ- فِي خَمْسَةَ [عَشَرَ] ذِرَاعاً سَمْكَةً، فِي ذِرَاعَيْنِ غِلْظَةً- فَجَعَلَ أَصْحَابُ عَلِيٍّ ع وَ هُمْ يَأْكُلُونَ- يَقُولُونَ: يَا أَخَا رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أَ فَتُحَامِي هَذَا وَ [أَنْتَ‏] تَأْكُلُ فَإِنَّكَ تَتْعَبُ فِي حَبْسِكَ هَذَا الْحَائِطَ عَنَّا. فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ ع: إِنِّي لَسْتُ أَجِدُ لَهُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ بِيَسَارِي- إِلَّا أَقَلَّ مِمَّا أَجِدُهُ مِنْ ثِقْلِ هَذِهِ اللُّقْمَةِ بِيَمِينِي. وَ هَرَبَ جَدُّ بْنُ قَيْسٍ، وَ خَشِيَ أَنْ يَكُونَ عَلِيٌّ قَدْ مَاتَ وَ صَحْبُهُ، وَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً يَطْلُبُهُ لِيَنْتَقِمَ مِنْهُ، وَ اخْتَبَأَ عِنْدَ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أُبَيٍّ، فَبَلَغَهُمْ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً قَدْ أَمْسَكَ الْحَائِطَ بِيَسَارِهِ وَ هُوَ يَأْكُلُ بِيَمِينِهِ، وَ أَصْحَابُهُ تَحْتَ الْحَائِطِ لَمْ يَمُوتُوا. فَقَالَ أَبُو الشُّرُورِ وَ أَبُو الدَّوَاهِي- اللَّذَانِ كَانَا أَصْلَ التَّدْبِيرِ فِي ذَلِكَ: إِنَّ عَلِيّاً قَدْ مَهَرَ بِسِحْرِ مُحَمَّدٍ فَلَا سَبِيلَ لَنَا عَلَيْهِ. فَلَمَّا فَرَغَ الْقَوْمُ مَالَ عَلِيٌّ ع عَلَى الْحَائِطِ بِيَسَارِهِ فَأَقَامَهُ وَ سَوَّاهُ، وَ رَأَبَ صَدْعَهُ، وَ لَأَمَ شَعْبَهُ، وَ خَرَجَ هُوَ وَ الْقَوْمُ «2» فَلَمَّا رَآهُ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص. قَالَ [لَهُ‏]: يَا أَبَا الْحَسَنِ ضَاهَيْتَ الْيَوْمَ أَخِيَ الْخَضِرَ لَمَّا أَقَامَ الْجِدَارَ، وَ مَا سَهَّلَ اللَّهُ ذَلِكَ لَهُ إِلَّا بِدُعَائِهِ بِنَا أَهْلَ الْبَيْت‏


Also there are Ahadeeth in the Sunni books which state the holy prophet --peace be upon him and his household-- never ate from that poisonous meal and such Ahadeeth are also available even from Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim which are considered by the Sunni brothers as most authentic books after Qur'aan (and Shia brothers do not agree upon this at all, for clarification):

When Khaibar was conquered, a roasted poisoned sheep was presented to the Prophets as a gift (by the Jews). The Prophet ordered, "Let all the Jews who have been here, be assembled before me." The Jews were collected and the Prophet said (to them), "I am going to ask you a question. Will you tell the truth?'' They said, "Yes.' The Prophet asked, "Who is your father?" They replied, "So-and-so." He said, "You have told a ie; your father is so-and-so." They said, "You are right." He siad, "Will you now tell me the truth, if I ask you about something?" They replied, "Yes, O AbuAl-Qasim; and if we should tell a lie, you can realize our lie as you have done regarding our father." On that he asked, "Who are the people of the (Hell) Fire?" They said, "We shall remain in the (Hell) Fire for a short period, and after that you will replace us." The Prophet said, "You may be cursed and humiliated in it! By Allah, we shall never replace you in it.'' Then he asked, "Will you now tell me the truth if I ask you a question?" They said, "Yes, O Ab Li-AI-Qasim." He asked, "Have you poisoned this sheep?" They said, "Yes." He asked, "What made you do so?" They said, "We wanted to know if you were a liar in which case we would get rid of you, and if you are a prophet then the poison would not harm you." [Sahih Bukhari: volume 4, book 53, number 394] and [Sahih Bukhari: Volume 7, Book 71, Number 669] both narrated by Abu Huraireh

in other Ahadeeth narrated from Anas bin Malik, a Jewess brought to the holy prophet --peace be upon him and his household-- a poisoned meat, the holy prophet accepted the gift and ate from it and got poisoned, as @ashes999 has used one of these Ahadeeth in his answer, however, no time is accounted for in such Ahadeeth:

Anas reported that a jewess came to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) with poisoned mutton and he took of that what had been brought to him (Allah's Messenger). (When the effect of this poison were felt by him) he called for her and asked her about that, whereupon she said: I had determined to kill you. Thereupon he said: Allah will never give you the power to do it. He (the narrator) said that they (the Companion's of the Holy Prophet) said: Should we not kill her? Thereupon he said: No. He (Anas) said: I felt (the affects of this poison) on the uvula of Aitah's Messenger. [Sahih Muslim: Book 026, Hadith 5430]

Anas b. Malik reported that a jewess brought poisoned meat and then served it to Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) [Sahih Muslim: Book 026, Hadith 5431]

A Jewess brought a poisoned (cooked) sheep for the Prophet who ate from it. She was brought to the Prophet and he was asked, "Shall we kill her?" He said, "No." I continued to see the effect of the poison on the palate of the mouth of Allah's Apostle. [Sahih Bukhari: Volume 3, Book 47, Number 786]

that if such stories address the conquest of the Khaybar then they are telling the same story as Shia Muslims believe in as well with the exception that we do not believe the holy prophet --peace be upon him and his household-- has got poisoned from that meat, he ate and remained protected. This is more rational as in the above Ahadeeth you see the holy prophet prevented the Jewess being executed, because she had not poisoned the apostle of Allah --peace be upon him and his household-- so even she was not forced to eat from the same meat (in which case she was certainly killed)!

Also there are some Ahadeeth from Ayesha that once she said the holy prophet passed away due to the poisoned meat of the Jewish woman, and once she says that he passed away due to pleurisy while in another Hadeeth herself has quoted from the holy prophet that he will not ever catch such an illness, some references for these from Sunni books has been cited in this link.

Sunni brothers may justify these contradicting Ahadeeth as either mistakes or that some of such Ahadeeth are fabricated and weak, I don't know, however, according to Shia Islam that I am only partially aware of its position about different issues Ayesha's quotations in this regard are not credible at all as she is one of the main accused persons in the event that caused the holy prophet --peace be upon him and his household-- passing away, and by this I am referring to the verse [66:3] of the Qur'aan, see here for addressing the issue with some more details. In short, the holy prophet --peace be upon him and his household-- told a secret to one of his wives to make her happy but also told her not to pass the secret to anyone else, but she informed of the secret his father Umar and Umar informed Abu Bakr for him to ask Ayesha about its authenticity. Gabriel --peace be upon him-- informed the holy prophet --peace be upon him-- about the secret being divulged and the plan that those four draw in mind to advance the event they had been given a good tidings about. The holy prophet --peace be upon him and his household-- however only made his wife to understand that he knows the secret has been divulged but remained silence about their plan and pretend as he doesn't know anything, not because he was pleased about it but because Ahlul Bayt are those about whom people had been, are and will be examined, as it is also stated in the following cut of the Ziyarat Jame3e Kabirah of Imam Hadi:

أَنْتُمُ الصِّرَاطُ الْأَقْوَمُ [السَّبِيلُ الْأَعْظَمُ‏] وَ شُهَدَاءُ دَارِ الْفَنَاءِ وَ شُفَعَاءُ دَارِ الْبَقَاءِ وَ الرَّحْمَةُ الْمَوْصُولَةُ وَ الْآيَةُ الْمَخْزُونَةُ وَ الْأَمَانَةُ الْمَحْفُوظَةُ وَ الْبَابُ الْمُبْتَلَى بِهِ النَّاسُ مَنْ أَتَاكُمْ نَجَا وَ مَنْ لَمْ يَأْتِكُمْ هَلَكَ إِلَى اللَّهِ تَدْعُونَ وَ عَلَيْهِ تَدُلُّونَ وَ بِهِ تُؤْمِنُونَ وَ لَهُ تُسَلِّمُونَ وَ بِأَمْرِهِ تَعْمَلُونَ وَ إِلَى سَبِيلِهِ تُرْشِدُونَ وَ بِقَوْلِهِ تَحْكُمُونَ سَعِدَ مَنْ وَالاكُمْ وَ هَلَكَ مَنْ عَادَاكُمْ وَ خَابَ مَنْ جَحَدَكُمْ وَ ضَلَّ مَنْ فَارَقَكُمْ وَ فَازَ مَنْ تَمَسَّكَ بِكُمْ وَ أَمِنَ مَنْ لَجَأَ إِلَيْكُمْ وَ سَلِمَ مَنْ صَدَّقَكُمْ وَ هُدِيَ مَنِ اعْتَصَمَ بِكُمْ

You [o Ahlul Bayt] are the strongest bridge [the most righteous way], and the witnesses of the mortal house and the pleaders of the eternal house, and the continuous blessing and the stored sign and the well guarded trust, and the door that people are examined about it, whoever that comes to you will survive and whoever that doesn't come to you will perish, toward Allah you invite and toward Him you reason, and to Him you believe and for Him you are submitted, and His command you obey in action and to His way you conduct and according to His statement you rule and judge, got lucky one who liked [and obeyed] you and became spoiled one who felt of ill-will and did animosity against you, and lost the benefits one who denied you and got lost and became misguided one who took his way far from you, and attained the highest achievement one who resorted to you and became safe one who sought in you for refuge, and got in peace who confirmed you and is truly guided who came into your guardianship.

and a similar saying has been reached to us from Imam Hussain --peace be upon him-- in Karbala, as already stated here: "we are those about whom people are examined". Shia believe that Ayesha failed in this examination due to what they believe about her intentions and actions during the War of the Camel and subsequently.

At the end I can only hope that the Sunni Muslims will not find this answer preconceived and biased.

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-1: The Stack Exchange model is designed around the concept of focussed answers for specific questions; this post is far too long, unfocussed and difficult to follow to be useful. –  goldPseudo Jan 15 '13 at 3:22
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@goldPseudo, actually I tried to answer the question from the Shia perspective in a way to also prevent triggering an emotional Shia-Sunni debate, considering also Sunni references, and eventually clarifying and remedying some statements in the other answers so that the OP can conclude something useful among all the controversies provided. And you are right it is long, but most of its length is due to the quoted Ahadeeth! Thanks for caring anyway ;) –  owari Jan 15 '13 at 4:47
    
It is not always necessary to quote entire ahadith, especially lengthy ones or those which merely confirm each other, and especially not in both Arabic and English. Summaries and directly pertinent extracts, with references to the full text for those who wish the extra detail, are more than sufficient. –  goldPseudo Jan 15 '13 at 6:10
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Prophet Mohammad (SAAW) died naturally at the age of 63.

At the age of 60, a Jewish woman tried to poison him, but he spit the meat before swallowing it. However, some poison reached his blood and caused him pain for the next 3 years. Nevertheless, he died when his time had come, and there is no proof (AFAIK) that the poison was the cause of death.

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Although this answers the question, it comes off as conjecture. Maybe you can use some sources from my answer to give it more substance? –  ashes999 Jan 10 '13 at 18:27
    
@ashes999 Your answer is very good. I am thinking of removing my answer in favor of yours. –  Hosam Aly Jan 10 '13 at 18:52
    
multiple answers are always welcome. There are usually enough shades of differences for more than one answer to be useful. –  ashes999 Jan 10 '13 at 19:36
    
we expect answers to have some sort of substantial backing or proof, such as ayaat, ahadith, etc. to support them –  saber tabatabaee yazdi Jan 14 '13 at 6:41
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This is an interesting question because of the issue of poison.

Rasulullah (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) died when he was 63 years old. This comes directly from a hadith narrated by A'isha and collected in Bukhari:

Narrated `Aisha: The Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) died when he was sixty three years old.

Another hadith in Bukhari mentions that he died of illness (emphasis mine):

The Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) called his daughter Fatima during his illness in which he died, [...]

From these two ahadith, we establish that he did indeed die, and he died naturally (of illness) at age 63.

Many ahadith mention that a Jewish lady poisoned him after the conquest of Khaybar, including this one in Bukhari (emphasis mine):

A Jewess brought a poisoned (cooked) sheep for the Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) who ate from it. She was brought to the Prophet and he was asked, "Shall we kill her?" He said, "No." I continued to see the effect of the poison on the palate of the mouth of Allah's Messenger (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) .

Khaybar was around 6 hijri, if I recall correctly. Did rasulullah die of that poison? No; Allah protected him. The jewish woman who posioned him, when he asked why she did it, admitted herself:

If you are a king, then we would be rid of you; and if you are a prophet, then it would not harm you.

However, rasulullah himself mentions in this hadith in Bukhari (emphasis mine):

The Prophet (salallahu alayhi wa sallam) in his ailment in which he died, used to say, "O `Aisha! I still feel the pain caused by the food I ate at Khaibar, and at this time, I feel as if my aorta is being cut from that poison."

Based on this, some scholars say that Allah combined the reward of being a prophet, and the reward of being a martyr, together for rasulullah, and no one else.

And Allah knows best.

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I'd like to note that he didn't actually eat it, but he just chewed it and quickly spit it out, without swallowing it. This was indeed during Khaybar, which was at the beginning of the year 7 hijri. He was at the age of 60 (saaw). –  Hosam Aly Jan 10 '13 at 19:02
    
Why is this down-voted? –  ashes999 Jan 11 '13 at 2:33
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Our Prophet Hazrat Mohammad (Sallala Ho Alahi Wa Alahi Wassalam) died naturally at the age of 63.

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Salam, and Welcome to our site! Generally, we expect answers to have some sort of substantial backing or proof, such as ayaat, ahadith, etc. to support them. –  ashes999 Jan 10 '13 at 15:28
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