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I have been looking at the Sunni > Hanafi > Deoband version of Islam. They say that the following prayers should be offered by all adults every day:

Fajr
4 rakha (2 rakha sunnah, and 2 rakha fardh)

Dhohr
12 rakha (4 rakha sunnah, 4 rakha fardh, 2 rakha sunnah, and 2 rakha nafil)

Asr
8 rakha (4 rakha sunnah, and 4 rakha fardh)

Maghrib
7 rakha (3 rakha fardh, 2 rakha sunnah, and 2 rakha nafil)

Isha
17 rakha (4 rakha sunnah, 4 rakha fardh, 2 rakha sunnah, and 2 rakha nafil, 3 rakha witr, and 2 rakha nafil)

My question is, what is the purpose of the different sections of each prayer. When I say "sections", mean fajr has 4 rakhas with 2 sections, each of the sections has 2 rakhas each, 2 sunnahs and 2 fardha, what is the purpose of the 2 sunnahs and what is the purpose of the 2 fardhs?

My question is not about why some prayers are longer than others. For example, Dhohr consists of 12 rakhas in total and Fajr consists of 4 rakhas only, that is not what my question is about.

My question is, what is the purpose of the first set of 4 sunnahs, what is the purpose of the second set of 4 fardh, what is the purpose of the third set of 2 sunnah, and what is the purpose of the forth set of 2 nafil?

As this question is based on the Sunni > Hanafi > Deoband belief system, I would prefer their point of view if possible, but other point of views are fine if they have similarly structured daily prayers.

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I know you are looking for sunni answers so here is my only comment. According to Shia there were 51 rak'ah obligated for each day and night, but then during the journey of the holy prophet --peace be upon him-- in heavens (during his ascent) Moses --peace be upon him-- told the holy prophet to ask Allah to reduce the duties of Muslims and 51 was then reduced to 17, the others became Mustahab and are Sunnah as well. –  owari Dec 27 '12 at 20:41
    
@owari Sunnah and Mustahab are the same. –  Al Ummat Dec 28 '12 at 16:53
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You do not have to do these extra for they are mostly sunnah and nafl, anyone who says that you must do it is oppressive. These Salawat have their sources the sunnah. Starting from Fajr, the Prophet (May Allah's Peace and blessings be upon Him) used to always do the two Rak'at before Fajr, Source. As for the benefit of doing it, the Prophet (May Allah's blessings and peace be upon Him) said in an authentic Hadith that doing the two Rak'at before Fajr is better than this world and everything in it, Source.

As for the four before Dhur salat, this is one that the (Prophet May Allah's Peace and blessings be upon Him) did not leave off, source. The Prophet (May Allah's Peace and blessings be upon Him) said that those who make four Rak'at before and after Dhur the person will not enter the hell fire, Source.

As for praying four before asr, the Prophet (May Allah's peace and blessings be upon Him) said that the person who prays these four before asr, Allah will bestow mercy upon them, Source. I am not quite sure about the four rak'ats after Maghrib, but I do know that there is a Very Weak Hadith In which it says whoever prays six rak'ats after Maghrib without speaking in between them, than it will be like twelve years of worship, but as I said this is a very weak Hadith and hence should not be followed. A More Authentic Hadith says that you pray 2 after maghrib.

It is narrated that the Prophet (May Allah's Peace and blessings be upon Him) used to make thirteen Rak'ats at night, source. I ask Allah for any mistake I have made in this answer, and I pray that it benefits.

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