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Prophet Muhammad(PBUH) married Hazrat Aisha(RA) when she was only 9 years old and he was 53. He in fact proposed her when she was only 6.

This sounds strange that the most genius person in the world would marry a 9 year old girl? For what? This would mean that a divine decree was involved here and that God had special place for Aisha(RA). But even that is doubtful. Hazrat Aisha(RA) has been a main cause of the rift in Islam i.e. Sunni Version and Shia Version. Shia Muslim do not really favor Aisha(RA) in a number of ways

  • That she propelled her father into caliph-hood when the Prophet died;
  • She fought against Hazrat Ali in battle of Camel. (Having a sound mind, I think it was wrong on her part to get involved in such war, especially that she was defeated);
  • The marriage of Aisha(RA) to the Prophet was not the happiest marriage in the world. Even the Quran talked about their divorce 33:28-29;
  • Her own right as a little girl was violated by having such early marriage;
  • I have heard her first menses came when she was 14. This falsify the claim that she was really an adult at the time of marriage.

O Prophet, say to your wives, "If you should desire the worldly life and its adornment, then come, I will provide for you and give you a gracious release. But if you should desire Allah and His Messenger and the home of the Hereafter - then indeed, Allah has prepared for the doers of good among you a great reward." [33:28-29]

So the question is, why did the Prophet marry a 9 year old girl when potentially it brought no good to Islam. Yes there are huge number of hadiths related to her but they are related in a chain and majority of them are not accepted by Shia Muslim (and hence my question). Why did the Prophet marry a 9 year old girl?

If this was divine decree, wasn't it terribly wrong one?

Disclaimer:I am Sunni Muslim and this question is I no way intended to defame Aisha(RA). She is Ammul-Momimin. My question is really about God, and how he makes decision, which can be potentially wrong. Also note that I will accept Sunni Islam view answer, although Shia answers are highly encouraged.

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See: sunnah.com/nasai/26/60 and also, we do not have to know how Allah makes decisions, if He makes a decision we have no right to question. Allah never makes a wrong decision, thinking so leads to Kufur, that is how Shaytaan became Kafir, by basically saying Allah made an error asking him to bow to adam. I ask Allah for forgiveness for any wrong information I give. –  Mujahid مجاهد Nov 17 '12 at 16:35
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"I think it was wrong on her part to get involvd in such war, esp that she was defeated" - But she did not know, that shee was going to be defeated!. +1. –  Jawad Nov 17 '12 at 16:35
    
Well I must question God and I am. No offense intended. –  muslim1 Nov 17 '12 at 16:47
    
@The Crocodile hunter: How does quran.com/33/28-29 speak of the divorce? –  Jawad Nov 17 '12 at 16:48
    
@Jawad there is no conflict in this AFAIK If you desire the life of this world and its adornment, come [now], I will provide for you, in other words, the compensation [to be provided] for divorce, and release you in a gracious manner, I will divorce you and will not coerce [you to stay] tafseer here –  muslim1 Nov 17 '12 at 16:50

5 Answers 5

There are some Ayahs in Quran regarding marriages of prophet Muhammad (PBUH) like the below Ayah:

لَا يَحِلُّ لَكَ النِّسَاء مِن بَعْدُ وَلَا أَن تَبَدَّلَ بِهِنَّ مِنْ أَزْوَاجٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكَ حُسْنُهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا مَلَكَتْ يَمِينُكَ - الاحزاب 52

But I have never heard an Ayah that orders prophet to marry Aisha. I think making an argument that it has been a divine order is not so simple and needs very trustful references.

However I would like to add several points to my answer:

  • Like everybody else, prophet Muhammad (PBUH) had a private life, in addition to the social and religious life. It's not easy at all to make a judgement about a prophet's decision that has also a private face that we can not see.

  • Everything has happened 14 centuries ago and many things are forgotten by the history, or changed. So saying what was good or bad does not seem very easy.

  • Think a few minutes about converting the beliefs of the huge number of people who praised their hand-made idols for many generations just in 23 years. Specially in the era that there was no internet, very limited education, and people replied dialogs by their swords.

Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) made a lot of social/political connections through his marriages, and having a good support from different tribes was critical for the progress of Islam, considering the hardest limitations and sanctions of pagans against muslims.

So I believe we can not say some marriage of prophet was a wrong choice, even if we think some decisions of a wife has been wrong.

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@Ali has mentioned the social political connections, but I would like to elaborate more: It has come partly from here but it is in Persian.

Your question is basically why god has let the Prophet marry Aisha?

The answer is that it has been for political reasons. The prophet (pbuh), to reach better status socially and politically, in order to advertise and spread Islam as much as possible did some marriages. Here I list them and explain more:

  • Aisha: The daughter of Abubakr from the tribe Tim (Quraish)
  • Hafsah: The daughter of Omar from the tribe Edi (Quraish)
  • Om Habibah: The daughter of Abusufyan form Bani Omayah (Quraish)
  • Om Salamah from Bani Mahzum
  • Meimunah from bani halal
  • Safiah from bani israil

Sorry for the transliteration of arabic names :)

As you see all of them are from different tribes. Back then marriage was the primary element to strengthen the relations between different tribes. Marriage to a different tribe was the number 1 element to avoid wars between different tribes (ref. Ibn khaldun introduction)

For this reason The prophet (pbuh), tried to marry women from different tribes, even from Bani omayyah to decrease their aggressiveness toward himself, creating love possibly, and better spread of Islam.

Quote from La vie de Mahomet from Georgio:

We read in some historical books that the Prophet (pbuh) proposed several women, and He did not even marry them all, but even this much the whole tribe was honored and it created a good relation between the Prophet (pbuh) and that tribe. For example when Umm Salamah from bani mahzum (the tribe of Abujahl and Khalid ibn valid) married the prophet, Khalid enemity towards the Prophet (pbuh) lessend very much and after not so long he embraced Islam. Another example is Juirieh and Safieh, which caused the calm down of Bani nazir and bani mutlaq. For the marriage of Juirieh with the Prophet (pbuh), the sahabah released 100 captives of war since they became relatives with the Prophet (pbuh).

Also note that all these marriages happened after Hazrat Khadijah in the final years of the Prophet, since the Prophet wanted to be sure of the love between the different tribes which were really enemy before. Therefore, don't be under this impression that Aisha was any better than other wives of the Prophet.

For example in Surah tahrim verse 4, God speaks about the mistake of two wives of the Prophet (pbuh):

إِنْ تَتُوبَا إِلَى اللَّهِ فَقَدْ صَغَتْ قُلُوبُكُمَا وَإِنْ تَظَاهَرَا عَلَيْهِ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ مَوْلَاهُ وَجِبْرِيلُ وَصَالِحُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ ظَهِيرٌ

If ye two turn in repentance to Him, your hearts are indeed so inclined; But if ye back up each other against him, truly Allah is his Protector, and Gabriel, and (every) righteous one among those who believe,- and furthermore, the angels - will back (him) up.

Next verse:It may be, if he divorced you (all), that Allah will give him in exchange consorts better than you,- who submit (their wills), who believe, who are devout, who turn to Allah in repentance, who worship (in humility), who travel (for Faith) and fast,- previously married or virgins.

Sahih Bukhari (صحيح بخاري کتاب فرض الخمس باب ما جاء في بيوت ازواج النبي صلي الله عليه وسلم):

حَدَّثَنَا مُوسَى بْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ حَدَّثَنَا جُوَيْرِيَةُ عَنْ نَافِعٍ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ قَامَ النَّبِيُّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ خَطِيبًا فَأَشَارَ نَحْوَ مَسْكَنِ عَائِشَةَ فَقَالَ هُنَا الْفِتْنَةُ ثَلَاثًا مِنْ حَيْثُ يَطْلُعُ قَرْنُ الشَّيْطَانِ

The prophet points to the house of Aisha, and repeats this sentence three times: Fitnah is here, Here is where the Hizb of Satan will appear.

In conclusion, you should read history unbiased and see what happened and what the consequences were. Aisha was among the other wives of the prophet, which apparently did several mistakes including the well known battle of camel. I doubt if anybody can deny that. I am very worried that when I speak about this sensitive issue one of the Sunni brothers gets angry. Nevertheless, the wives of the Prophet are Umm Almuminin, which means that no body can marry them after the Prophet.

EDIT:

I want to add some text about an issue that came up in the comments of @thecorocodile... answer. Basically the questioner is asking, why God that knows about the future and he is all wise and all knowing, why should he let his Messenger (pbuh) do sth which can be potentially wrong (in this case marriage with Aisha)?

Note that as metioned in this answer, there were a lot of benefits through the multiple marriages of the Prophet (pbuh). It may only seem wrong because of the things that are mentioned in the question which are true indeed. But this conclusion (wrong decision by Allah) is subjective. Proof needed to support the argument. Sometimes we don't comprehend the reasoning behind things from the beginning. I suggest you read this. It might help alot.

And God Knows best,

Hope this helps,

PS: For the age of Aisha when she married the Prophet (pbuh), see this atleast. neither 6 nor 9 seems to be true.

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When the prophet first proposed Aisha, Abu Bakr (RA) said in surprise 'But oh messenger of Allah, I am your brother'. That means he was already close to the prophet because he was like brother to prophet (which is true). My question implies God made this decision for the prophet but we fail to answer it that way. No disrespect for Aisha is intended here in any way. It is just a simple question about God, the prophet and their decisions. –  muslim1 Dec 21 '12 at 21:49
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@Thecrocodilehunter, Thanks for your comment. Yes nobody is allowed to disrespect Aisha. About what you say I am not sure if it is true. But about God action, everything that the Prophet (pbuh) does is according to God, not only his marriage to Aisha. The reason for the marriage was social / political which is mentioned in the answer. I think this and other marriages of the Prophet (pbuh) fullfills the intended goals which justifies God and the Prophet (pbuh) action. I hope I have provided enough details and evidence to support the argument. –  rowman Dec 22 '12 at 7:48

subhanallah,Allah is All-Knowing,there was a wisdom behind this controversial marriage of holy prophet,first,political,2nd ethnical,3rd social,4th jurisprudencial,and as you said it was all always for goodness of islam,another thing is to prove that matrimonial relation will never be a guarantee for you to be admitted in Paradise,bcoz Qur'an highly and clearly expressed the story of prophet Lut and Noah (pbut) wives' being a hypocrites and stressed out Pharaoh's wife being a believer...another thing is the obedience of Allah's Laws must be over our obedience to our parents,namely,the wives of the prophet were mothers of believer,but we must have our scale to obey those who obey Allah and disobey those who disobey hIM,

And We have enjoined upon man goodness to parents. But if they endeavor to make you associate with Me that of which you have no knowledge, do not obey them. To Me is your return, and I will inform you about what you used to do. QUR'AN 29:8

Source

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Salam and Welcome to Islam.SE, please check the FAQ. Here we require answers to directly answer the question. We suggest to you that you look around this site, especially at high quality posts, so that you get a feel of how things work here. –  Mujahid مجاهد Feb 22 '13 at 21:28
    
i just passed by and saw the conversation so i add my answer,but not intentionally joining,however as if i see it'll be informative and i can learn more about islam so just assist me if needed.. –  sittie lawi Feb 22 '13 at 21:38
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of course, you are free to come and go as you please, but if you wish to provide an answer please make sure it meets the requirements, that's all we ask. And you, and everyone else is free to come and go as they please. –  Mujahid مجاهد Feb 22 '13 at 21:41
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the youtube link that you have provided regarding the age of aisha has been refuted by scholars and contains alot of errors, check this to know the age of Aisha (RA) islam.stackexchange.com/questions/5849/…. also Islam is the last and complete religion. Don't compare the wives of the prophet Mohamed with wives of other prophets. Prophet Mohamed could have divorced his wives if they were not muslims. Islam came to help people. not to confuse them –  Sohaeb Feb 24 '13 at 5:30
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If you two [wives] repent to Allah , [it is best], for your hearts have deviated. But if you cooperate against him - then indeed Allah is his protector, and Gabriel and the righteous of the believers and the angels, moreover, are [his] assistantsزPerhaps his Lord, if he divorced you [all], would substitute for him wives better than you - submitting [to Allah ], believing, devoutly obedient, repentant, worshipping, and traveling - [ones] previously married and virgins. 66:4-5..highlight the unfavored character of some of his wives.and scale is left to you to balance your conciousness. –  sittie lawi Feb 25 '13 at 21:10

Clearing The Misconceptions:

  1. Quran And Hadith:
    • "And Allah has made for you your mates of your own nature, and made for you, out of them, sons and daughters and grandchildren, and provided for you sustenance of the best." [Quran 16:72].
    • The Quran [4:21] refers to marriage as a mithaq, i.e. a solemn COVENANT or AGREEMENT between husband and wife, and enjoins that it be put down in WRITING. Since no agreement can be reached between the parties unless they give their CONSENT to it, marriage can be contracted only with the FREE CONSENT of the two parties. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said ==>
    • "The widow and the divorced woman shall not be married until their order is obtained, and the virgin shall not be married until her consent is obtained." [Bukhari]

This aspect is greatly emphasized by Imam Bukhari. He, in fact, gave one of the chapters in his Sahih the significant title:

  • "When a man gives his daughter in marriage and she dislikes it, the marriage shall be annulled." Once a virgin girl came to the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) and said that her father had married her to a man against her wishes. The Prophet gave her the right to repudiate the marriage. [Abu Dawud]

  • Divorced women are also given freedom to contract a second marriage. The Quran says,
    "And when you divorce women, and they have come to the end of their waiting period, hinder them not from marrying other men if they have agreed with each other in a fair manner." [Quran 2:232].

  • Do not give IMMATURE orphans the properties that GOD has entrusted with you as guardians. You shall provide for them therefrom, and clothe them, and treat them kindly [Quran 4:5] .

  • You shall TEST the orphans when they reach puberty. As soon as you find them MATURE ENOUGH, give them their property. Do not consume it extravagantly in a hurry, before they grow up. The rich guardian shall not charge any wage, but the poor guardian may charge equitably. When you give them their properties, you shall have witnesses. GOD suffices as Reckoner [Quran 4:6] .

The above verses of The Quran clearly indicates that the marriage is not a forcible decision instead their must be free and open consent from both sides including a proper understanding from men and women and should be written as well in front of scribes or witnesses. The Quran advises even to give the properties of the Orphan to them when they reaches a level of maturity

CASE 1-

  • It is almost believed by every scholar that Asma (r.a)(elder sister of Ayesha (r.a.)) was 10 yrs older than her.(Siyar A’lama-nubala, Al-Zahabi, Vol. 2, pg 289, Arabic, Muassasatu-risalah, 1992,Al-Bidayah wa-nihayah, Ibn Kathir, Vol. 8, pg 371, Dar al-fikr al-`arabi, Al-jizah, 1933).
  • Asma(r.a.) had seen the killing of her son in 73 A.H.
  • She died at the age of 98 yrs(Islamic calender) around 73 A.H.
  • Migration to madina was in 622 C.E., she spent more than 71 yrs(Gregorian calender) after hijri and died at the age 98. Which means she had spent around 27 yrs in makkah.
  • 27+71 = 98 yrs.
  • IF ASMA (R.A) WAS 27 AT THE TIME OF HIJRAH AND AYESHA (R.A.) WAS 10 YRS YOUNGER TO HER THEN HER AGE BECOMES 27-10 = 17.

CASE 2-

  • “I was a young girl (jariyah in Arabic)” when Surah Al-Qamar was revealed(Sahih Bukhari, kitabu’l-tafsir, Bab QaulihiBal al-saatu Mawiduhum wal-saatu adha wa amarr).
  • Surah Al-Qamar was revealed in 614 C.E.
  • The word used is 'jariyah' which means 'Young girl' not 'sibyah' which means 'infant'. which means she had to somewhere between 9-13 yrs and 18-21 when she married the Prophet.

CASE 3-

  • According to a hadith in Bukhari and Muslim, Aisha is said to have joined Muhammad on the raid that culminated in the Battle of Badr, in 624 CE. However, because no one below the age of fifteen was allowed to accompany raiding parties, Aisha should have been at least fifteen in 624 CE and thus at least thirteen when she was married following the Hijra in 622 CE.
  • According to many Ahadith in Bukhari, it is believed Aisha participated in the both of Badr and Uhud battles. Furthermore, in Bukhari's Kitabu’l-Maghazi, Ibn `Umar states: "The Prophet did not permit me to participate in Uhud battle, as at that time, I was 14 years old. But on the day of Khandaq battle, when I was 15 years old, the Prophet permitted my participation". So, since it was not allowed for Muslims younger than 15 years old to participate in Uhud battle, Aisha, who participated in Uhud, must have been at least 15 years old in those battles.
  • The marriage occurred after the Battle of Badr in Shawal 2nd A.H (hijri)(A’ini, vol. 8, pg. 96) WHICH AGAIN MAKES HER 15+2=17 YRS.

CONCLUSION

  1. It had became very popular for any reason but their are many contradictory statements against it for which Sahih Bukhari itself contradicts itself.
  2. Ayesha (r.a) age can be easily proven to be more than 15 and often with solid proofs of more than 17.
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up vote -1 down vote accepted

The marriage of Aisha (RA) with Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) was indeed a divine decree. We know for sure that dreams was a way of inspiration from God on the prophet. Ibrahim (AS) saw a dream to sacrifice his son, according to Quran

And when he reached with him [the age of] exertion, he said, "O my son, indeed I have seen in a dream that I [must] sacrifice you, so see what you think." He said, "O my father, do as you are commanded. You will find me, if Allah wills, of the steadfast."

The prophet (PBUH) also used to get inspiration through dreams. It is believed according to Muslim faith that dreams that the prophets see are true and are visions of God. It is related from Aisha (RA)

Narrated 'Aisha: (the mother of the faithful believers) The commencement of the Divine Inspiration to Allah's Apostle was in the form of good dreams which came true like bright day light, ... (V1B1N3)

The prophet saw a similar dream regarding Aisha (RA) before he married her.

Narrated 'Aisha: That the Prophet said to her, "You have been shown to me twice in my dream. I saw you pictured on a piece of silk and some-one said (to me). 'This is your wife.' When I uncovered the picture, I saw that it was yours. I said, 'If this is from Allah, it will be done." (B58N235)

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You did not answer the question. Why did the prophet marry a 6? year old girl when potentially it brought no good to Islam? You say it is devine decree but for why? This why the original question. –  rowman Dec 23 '12 at 8:43
    
@rowman if Allah spoke to the noble prophet and instructed him to do something, then obviously it was to bring good to Islam. Unless you're trying to say Allah doesn't know best? –  Hanif Dec 23 '12 at 11:45
    
@Hanif, no ofcourse not. But the question is about the very good thing that was supposed to come and has indeed come. This answer does not address it. I hope you understand the situation. –  rowman Dec 23 '12 at 12:44
    
@rowman I did not answer that part because the two other answers left that completely and did manage up votes + I do not want to hurt someone feeling that it was indeed a bad decision by God. People take it wrong that I blame Aisha (RA) but they fail to understand she did not do anything wrong, nor she proposed the prophet, it was the prophet and God's decision. I frankly find the blame with the God and 0 percent with Aisha (RA) (if it was a wrong decision in the first place). I answered this because no one could answer a simple question correctly. –  muslim1 Dec 23 '12 at 14:03
    
@Thecrocodilehunter, Thanks for your comment. should god be responsible for people's actions? If someone does sth wrong, do you blame God for that. People are free to choose what they want, and they are kept responsible for that. –  rowman Dec 23 '12 at 14:28

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