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I was recently introduced to the term I'rab (الإعراب) al-Qur'an, and told it was one of the sciences of the Qur'an.

Now me, I love sciences of the Qur'an as much as anybody else (hey, who doesn't), but this was a new one for me. Google searching was inconclusive; the closest thing to a clear definition I could find was on this site, where it is described thus:

I’raab is to state the type of the word (naw’ul kalimah), its hukm (ruling) and its ‘alaamah (its sign).

Concise, but I still can't quite wrap my head around exactly what it is. Is it just a catch-all for any form of lexical and/or grammatical analysis as applied to the Qur'an, or does it have a more particular meaning?

So the question lies, from the perspective of a layman, what exactly is I'rabul Qur'an?

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2 Answers

Irab also sometimes known as grammar. With Irab one can know the conditions of the Arabic words in terms of Al Bana' البناء and Al Irab الإعراب (Al Mabni المبني is where the end of a word stays on one condition in any composition, and Al Murab المعرب is when the end of a word can change.), و من حيث ما يعرض لها في حال تركيبها .

Ahmed bin Faris bin Zakariyah

Without Irab we could not tell the difference between Fa'il and Maf'ool (فاعل و مفعول), nor Mudhaf from man'oot (مضاف من منعوت), nor would one marvel from a exclamation (استفهام), nor a Sadr from a Masdar, nor a Na't from a Ta'keed.

It is a must to know Irab if one wants to interpret the Qur'an, for it is a need. It is also a need for those who look into the Quran, uncovering it's secrets looking at a word it's wording and place.

The sciences of the Quran is made of a number of researches like Maki and Madani, and Tafseer, Annasikh and Al Mansookh. One of these researches are Irabul Qur'an.

Source: Attabiyan Fi Irabul Qur'an by AbilBaba' Abdulah bin Al Husayn Al Akbari

and

WikiPedia

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I'raab al-Quran means to grammatically dissect verses and understand them.

For example, in Surah Fatiha, Allah says "Ar-Rahmani, Ar-Rahimi." Why do these two names end in kasra (majroor, or "genitive case")? Scholars differed. Some say it is na'at and man'oot (noun + adjective), and some say it is idaafah (possessive case).

This is obviously an important part of studying the Qur'an -- understanding exactly what verses say, and what the meaning implications are.

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