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I would like to know, what is the ruling in performing a Sajde-e-sahu (the sajde required to offer at the end of salat in case of mistake) ? What situations in salat might make them obligatory ?

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do you mean سجدة السهو Sjdatul Sahu, the sajdat that you make at the end of salat if you realize a mistake has been done during the salat? –  Mujahid مجاهد Oct 24 '12 at 16:37
    
Yup that's correct. –  mtk Oct 24 '12 at 16:43
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According to the Malikiyah and Shafi'iyah Sajdatu Sahu is Sunnah, but according to the Hanafiyah and Hanabalah it is wajidb, and the Mussali (one who prays) has made an error if he leaves it.

You make Sajdatul Sahu for three reasons:

  1. If you do not do a Sunnah Mu'akadah.

  2. If you added something to the salat that is not originaly of the salat, like an extra Rakat.

  3. If you added and took away something from the salat for example one forgets to say a surah out loud and makes an extra Rakah.

Source: Al Fiqh Al maliki Al Muyassar by Dr. Wahbat Azuhayli

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Sajda Sahv means genuflection of mistake and is for indemnity of a non-intentional mistake in prayer.

According to Fiqh of Shia Islam Sajda Sahv is for doing a mistake in obligatory prayers.

If any of the following five types of mistakes occurs forgetfully during a wajib salat, then it is wajib to perform Sajdah Sahv immediately after completing the salat.

(1) Talking forgetfully during salat (or even uttering a single word which has a meaning, e.g. saying ‘Ah’ in pain).

(2) Reciting Salam forgetfully at a wrong place during salat. (For example, if you recite Salam after Tashahhud in 2nd rakat in a 4-rakat salat). Salam in a salat has three parts. Sajdah Sahv becomes wajib if 2nd or 3rd part of Salam is recited forgetfully. If only 1st part is recited forgetfully, then Sajdah Sahv is not wajib, but it is mustahab to perform.

(3) Forgetting to recite Tashahhud during salat. If you forget Tashahhud after 2nd rakat, but remember it before the ruku of next rakat, then you should return and perform it. And after the salat, perform Sajdah Sahv for performing additional standing (qiyam).

(4) Adding or omitting something forgetfully during salat, but that addition or omission does not make salat void. (Examples: (i) reciting Tashahhud after 1st rakat or after 3rd rakat in a 4-rakat salat; (ii) doing an extra sajda by mistake; (iii) forgetting zikr in a sajdah or ruku, (iv) forgetting second surah in 1st rakat or 2nd rakat, etc).

(5) When doubts occurs in the number of rakats in a 4-rakat salat, if it is 4th or 5th rakat, or it is 4th or 6th rakat, or it is 4th or more rakat (as explained in Fiqh Notes #2).

Lecture #3 Maulana Abul Qasim Rizvi, Panjtan Ctr, Melb rev 160107 5


References:

SAJDAH SAHV, NOTES OF LECTURES ON FIQH - By Maulana Abul Qasim Rizvi

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