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As is known, the majority of hadith literature available today was compiled well after the death of the prophet, due in part to the nigh-unmanageable number of questionable or downright fabricated ahadith which were being narrated. The hadith sciences were developed, giving scholars criteria with which to distinguish between authentic ahadith and weak ahadith.

Take, for example, Sahih Bukhari. Bukhari was notoriously discriminating, and went through significant effort to collect and compile only the most authentic ahadith that he could; for the sake of argument let's assume that he was successful and that this collection was 100% authentic.

However, this merely determines that these collected ahadith were authentic at that particular point in time. Given that these books were written centuries before any form of "perfect" scriptural reproduction was available, any copies made thereof would have to have been transcribed manually. And without any original manuscripts to refer to, any current references would be based upon these copies, or copies of copies.

Due to simple human error, every manually-copied edition increases the chances of mistakes being introduced into the text, be it intentional or accidental. To me, this parallels very strongly with the earlier hadith sciences, wherein determining the authenticity of any particular hadith requires a thorough understanding of every narrator in the isnad. A hadith is only considered sahih if each and every narrator in the isnad is considered reliable.

The only difference in the case of transcription is that this "narration" is transmitted textually, rather than orally.

No hadith text I have seen lists a "scribal isnad;" the chain of narration, such as it is, tends to end with the fact that it was compiled by Bukhari. Given that any scribe between the original compilation and the invention of perfect digital copies may have (inadvertently) changed the text, what we have today as "Sahih Bukhari" may or may not be the original text compiled by Bukhari.

I realize that just because I've not seen such a "scribal isnad" does not mean they do not exist (limited to English as I am, many ahadith do not even bother to translate the normal isnad), and I also realize that a number of sahih ahadith would've been recorded during that time in disparate enough works that they could (by the same parallel) be considered mutawatir, but I know little (if anything) about the sciences of hadith which specifically deal with ahadith after they're compiled. Do the extant hadith sciences account for such (potential) scribal errors, or must we resort to textual criticism to determine authenticity?

To put it another way, if (for example) Imam Bukhari were alive today, would he call any hadith, even those compiled in his own Sahih, "sahih"?

(note that Sahih Bukhari was used as an example, but the question is applicable to any hadith which is called "sahih," regardless of where it was compiled or who authenticated it)

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Do you know Qur'aan has an isnad as well? –  Abdullah Sep 27 '12 at 8:00
I've always wondered the same thing. With the Quran, there were always hundreds of people around who had memorized large portions of the Quran and were able to point out flaws. By the time all those people were no longer alive, there were already hundreds or thousands of physical parallel copies around. With the Hadiths, there were only around 3-5 people scattered around the region who were knowledgeable in a particular hadith. They would not be around to correct many scribal flaws. Even worse, a malicious person could introduce errors into a copy, and aggressively print several false copies. –  Muz Sep 29 '12 at 9:17

4 Answers 4

Yes, there is extreme confidence in the correctness of "sahih" ahadeeth.

To make a long story short, all valuable books in Islamic history were validated by the writer by reading them loudly to the original author, who would certify that the book was copied correctly. Additionally, important books would receive further attention, and people would memorize them and read them aloud to the author by-heart. Combining these two tactics, and adding a reconciliation process from many copiers at large libraries (such as in Baghdad or Damascus or Cordoba, etc.) proved to be very successful at maintaining reliable authenticity.

Even to day, scholars keep an isnad telling who certified them for having studied such books, and that isnad is required for someone to be able to certify another. This process is famous in the Arab world, such as at Azhar in Egypt, and people usually seek certification from multiple scholars.

Moreover, any printing of such books in Egypt has to submit to a thorough review (tahqiq - تحقيق) and certification process in order to be published. This is probably the same in many other countries as well. The review process has been applied historically to most (all?) important copies throughout the ages, and some scientists are devoted to it.

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Great answer. Do you have any references or further reading? –  ashes999 Nov 9 '12 at 15:30
Sorry @ashes999, it's so famous in my country that I never tried to find a reference. Our most valuable reference is that all scholars here do it (read: have to do it), and they can tell the isnad of who they studied with. My cousin can tell the isnad of a Hadith man-to-man from his teacher all the way until prophet Muhammad (SAAW). –  Hosam Aly Nov 10 '12 at 4:44

The process of transfering Hadith from teacher to student as I know was done at the time these books were written, first by memorising and then the student would write his own copy and then read out the book to his teacher tallying the hadith, this tradition is still intact in middle east where I live.

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uhmm if you even look at the isnads in several ahadith in sahih bukhari there are problems, for example hadith 4 in book 1. the isnad starts with ibn shihab az-Zuhri, but bukhari was not even born when az-Zuhri died so they couldnt have met, so either he is forgetful or lying. In hadith 6 there is a double isnad with 3 person recurring twice, looks like a copying error.


some ahadith the isnad is only names but no surnames so we cant determine who the people are it just says, abdullah heard from sulayman who heard from ismail, but we dont know which abdullah, which sulayman etc...

so it might be sahih in 8th century standards but not authentic to 21th century scientific standards. Imagine trying to determine nowadays what Napoleon said by hear-say.

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dont look at the chapter number but the reference under the hadith, the isnad is only written in arabic so sorry for those who cant read arabic –  SWF Jul 19 '14 at 15:04
owww i guess i understand hadith 6, it is 2 different routes he knowns the hadith thats why there are recurring people –  SWF Jul 19 '14 at 15:11

Yes a hadith without Isnad is practically useless. You have to realize that if many hadiths narrated by so many people(say 10) with different Isnads, it is a Very low chance of being a lie. This is similar to Biblical criticism and even Biblical scholars are impressed by this science. As a pose to a singular(Ahad) Hadith which should never be token at face value. This might help you: http://thequranisclear.blogspot.com/2013/01/exhaustive-list-of-mutawattir-hadith.html

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