The creed of Ahlus Sunnah is that we love all the Companions of the Prophet (radiallahu anhum). Moreover, our stand concerning the love for each companion is moderateness that is between extremism and negligence. We do not fanatically elevate any companion to a level befitting to only Allah or his Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) neither do we belittle or revile them. We love them as we were told by the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم). We love them all because Allah says in the Qur'an:
And the first forerunners [in the faith] among the Muhajireen and the
Ansar and those who followed them with good conduct - Allah is pleased
with them and they are pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them
gardens beneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide forever.
That is the great attainment. [Surah At-Tawbah:100]
Allah mentions that he is pleased with the Muhajireen and the Ansar without any exceptions. Allah declares that in Qur'an. How many of us have that status? I don't know if Allah is pleased with me or not. I still live in a state of hope and fear. But, here are a group of people whom Allah is pleased with. How would I or anyone dare to speak bad about them? Anyone who would speak bad about them should consider their status with Allah. Moreover, in the authentic sunnah of the Messenger (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم), it is reported:
Narrated Abu Sa`id: The Prophet said, "Do not abuse my companions for
if any one of you spent gold equal to Uhud (in Allah's Cause) it would
not be equal to a Mud or even a half Mud spent by one of them."
Secondly, I see you seem to make a rift between 'Ali (radiallahu anhu) and the other three Caliphs. I wonder why when 'Ali (radiallahu anhu) himself said that after Allah's Apostle (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم), the best people are Abu Bakr and Umar. I also see many other hadiths where Ali (radiallahu anhu) shows much respect for Abu Bakr and Umar. If you were really Shi'at Ali, then you would follow Ali in his way of respecting Abu Bakr and Umar too. We love all the four caliphs but we love the way the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) himself loved.
Narrated 'Amr bin Al-As: The Prophet deputed me to read the Army of
Dhat-as-Salasil. I came to him and said, "Who is the most beloved
person to you?" He said, " 'Aisha." I asked, "Among the men?" He said,
"Her father." I said, "Who then?" He said, "Then 'Umar bin
Al-Khattab." He then named other men.
Hence, we love Abu Bakr the most, followed by Umar, followed by Uthmaan and finally, Ali (radiallahu anhum). The virtues of Abu Bakr(radiallahu anhu) is seen in many statements of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم). Abu Bakr(radiallahu anhu) was very close to the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) and he was entrusted with affairs when the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) was not available. The Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) also called him a Siddiq and he would have taken him as a Khalil (friend).
In the same hadeeth as before, Umar (radiallahu anhu) is referred to as a martyr. Regarding the allegations you made about Umar (radiallahu anhu): It was not him who prohibited Mut'ah but the Prophet himself (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم):
Ali bin Abi Talib narrated: "The Prophet prohibited the Mut'ah with
women, and the meat of domestic donkeys during (the campaign of)
The taraweeh in Jama'h was also not something Umar (radiallahu anhu) himself came up with. This answer will explain that better. And why should I not follow the command of Umar (radiallahu anhu) when Prophet(صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) himself said:
Narrated Abu Huraira: Allah's Apostle said, "Among the nations before
you there used to be people who were inspired (though they were not
prophets). And if there is any of such a persons amongst my
followers, it is 'Umar."
That was the status of Umar (radiallahu anhu) with the Prophet(صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم). And we believe he followed the Prophet(صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) and he did not come up with something by himself.
We also love Ali (radiallahu anhu) because there are many many virtues and merits of him reported. However, this answer is more of clarification about Abu Bakr and Umar (radiallahu anhum). We strive to follow all the four caliphs and the muhajireen and the ansar in good conduct. That is why we are Sunnis and since they are the best ones who followed the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم)'s sunnah, we strive to follow the Sunnah of the Prophet and the Sunnah of the Rightly-guided Caliphs. This is because of the statement of the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم):
You must then follow my sunnah and that of the rightly-guided
caliphs. Hold to it and stick fast to it. Avoid novelties, for every
novelty is an innovation, and every innovation is an error.
In the famous hadeeth of seventy three sects, the Prophet (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) said:
"The Jews have split and divided into seventy-one sects and the
Christians have split and divided into seventy-two sects and my Ummah
would split into seventy-three sects. All of these sects will be in
the Fire except one." They said, "And which one is this o Messenger of
Allaah?" He said: "The Jamaa’ah." [ Related by at-Tirmidthee (no. 2641). It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Silsilatul-Ahaadeethus-Saheehah (no. 1348)]
This is the most popular narration of this hadeeth, and it is an authentic narration. In another narrations which explains this one, the Messenger of Allaah (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) , when asked about the group that would be saved, said:
"The one that adheres to what I and my Companions adhere to." [Related by al-Haythamee in Majma’uz-Zawaa‘id (1/189). It was authenticated by Shaykh al-Albaanee in Saheehul-Jaami‘ (52/9).]
Notice, he (صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) didn't just say what I adhere to but also included what his companions adhere to with no exceptions.
My intellect doesn't allow me to prefer one companion and discard others in light of all these narrations. Even more so, when the companion of the Prophet whom the Shi'a claim to love so much, himself had much love and respect for the other three companions. I feel I am obeying and following Ali more by respecting and honoring Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthmaan (May Allah be pleased with all of them).
PS: We also call ourselves Sunni because our rituals, rules and fiqh are formed based on authentic reports from the Prophet(صلّى الله عليه وآله وسلّم) himself. So we follow the Sunnah according to the authentic hadiths.