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How do the Malaki school of fiqh (islamic jurisdiction) make the Tasleem at the end of salat? I have heard that if someone was praying with you at your side then you can just say the salams to that side (the right side).

I would like to know, how do the Malaki school of fiqh make Tasleem in salat?

Also, I would like to know what hadith is used and if it is authentic, or what other sources they cite for this ruling.

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up vote 4 down vote accepted

According to the Maliki school:

  • only one salam (Tasleemah تسليمة) is wajib (obligatory - required). And they rely on this Hadith as a proof that only one single tasleemah is required:

    Aishah narrated: "Allah's Messenger would say one Taslim for the Salat while facing forward and turning to his right side a little."

    عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم كَانَ يُسَلِّمُ فِي الصَّلاَةِ تَسْلِيمَةً وَاحِدَةً تِلْقَاءَ وَجْهِهِ يَمِيلُ إِلَى الشِّقِّ الأَيْمَنِ شَيْئًا ‏

    [Jami` at-Tirmidhi]

    So the way this tasleemah is done is "facing forward and turning to right side a little."

    There are different opinions about the authenticity of this Haidth; Hakim Al-Nishaburi said it's sahih based on the paradigm of Bukhari and Muslim, and Al-Dhahabi agreed with him, and some other Hadith scholars agreed with them too. While many Hadith scholars said it's a weak (da'if) Hadith.

  • In addition, it's mustahab (recommended) for the person who is praying behind an Imam to make salam towards the Imam but in his heart (i.e without turning his head towards the Imam).

    And also if there's someone praying on his left side (in Jama'ah) then it's mustahab to make salam towards him, but again in his heart (i.e, without turning his head to the left).

    This is based on what Ahmad Al-Dardir (a Maliki scholar) said in his book الشرح الكبير when he was mentioning the Sunan of the Salat:

    والحادية عشر: رد مقتد على إمامه مشيرا له بقلبه لا برأسه، ثم يسن رده على يساره وبه أحد أي من المأمومين أدرك ركعة مع إمامه ولو صبيا

    And the eleventh (sunnah) is that a follower (person praying behind an Imam) reply toward the Imam (i.e, say salam in return) in his heart and without turning his head towards the Imam, and it's also sunnah to return the salam to the left if there's someone no the left who prayed at least rak'ah in the jama'ah, even if he was a child.

Hope that's helpful, references: this, this, and this.

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Just for the record, Shafi'i also believe that only the right tasleem is fard, but the left is sunnah mu'akkadah and should also be performed. Hanafi believe both are fard. I do not know about Hanbali. – Mahmoud Al-Qudsi Feb 13 '13 at 6:52
Also for the record, the Hadith mentioning this is inauthentic/weak/Da'eef. – مجاهد Feb 14 '13 at 1:57
@AlUmmat: There are disagreement about the authenticity of that hadith, as mentioned right below it. – Tamer Shlash Feb 14 '13 at 3:11

Here is the Reference from the al Muwatta about the 3 Tasleemat:

Yahya related to me from Malik from Nafi that Abdullah ibn Umar used to say the tashahhud saying, "In the name of Allah. Greetings belong to Allah. Prayers belong to Allah. Pure actions belong to Allah. Peace be on the Prophet and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be on us and on the slaves of Allah who are salihun. I testify that there is no god except Allah. I testify that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."

He used to say this after the first two rakas and he would make supplication with whatever seemed fit to him when the tashahhud was completed. When he sat at the end of the prayer, he did the tashahhud in a similar manner, except that after the tashahhud he made supplication with whatever seemed fit to him. When he had completed the tashahhud and intended to say the taslim, he said, "Peace be on the Prophet and His mercy and blessings. Peace be upon us and on the slaves of Allah who are salihun."

He then said, "Peace be upon you" to his right, and would return the greeting to the imam, and if anyone said "Peace be upon you" from his left he would return the greeting to him.

Note that a big minority of scholars, say that the taslim is as follows: saying as-salamu 'alaikum on the right, wa 'alaikum as-salam to the Imam and as-salamu 'alaikum to a person on the left. The majority doesn't say that in all three taslmeet you use the same wording: as-salamu 'alaikum. But most say that the tasleem towards the Imam is only said in the heart (not pronounced). Also note this narration is a clear evidence against the saying of ibn 'Arabi that the 3rd taslimah is a bid'ah, as if it was so how come a sahabi like ibn 'Omar who was known even to pray to rak'a in a place only because he saw our Messenger (peace be upon him) doing it there, following the guidance of our Prophet, would do something which we may call bid'ah?

And one of two hadiths mentioned on the 1 Tasleem in the Riwaya of Yahya ibn Yahya Al-Laithy of the Muwatta'

Yahya related to me from Malik from Yahya ibn Said al-Ansari that al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Muhammad told him that A'isha, the wife of the prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, used to say in the tashahhud,

"Greetings, good words, prayers, pure actions belong to Allah. I testify that there is no god except Allah, alone without partner, and I testify that Muhammad is the slave of Allah and His Messenger. Peace be upon you, Prophet, and the mercy of Allah and His blessings. Peace be upon us and on the slaves of Allah who are salihun . Peace be upon you . "

Note that ibn Majah, at-Tirmdihi, abu Dawod, al-Hakim, at-Tabari, a-Daraqotni, ibn Khozaymah and also Imam Ahmad have quoted similar ahadith as the one quoted by Tamer Shlash. This apparently was how people in Medina used to do tasleem, while in 'iraq it was used to perform two tasleemat saying: as-salmu 'laikum wa rahmatu-Llah to the right and left.

The one taslimah is not only reported on the authority of 'Aisha, but also by Sahl ibn Sa'id, ibn 'Omar ("كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَ الشَّفْعِ وَالْوِتْرِ بِتَسْلِيمَةٍ يُسْمِعُنَاهَا" in Musnad Ahmad 2/76 and sahih ibn Hebban 6/191) and Salamah ibn al-Awka' and from the doing of the muhajireen among the sahaba according ibn al-Mundhir (see for example in Sunan ad-Daraqutni, Musanaf ibn Shabyah -who quoted that Abu Bakr, 'Omar, Anas, al-Hassan (al-Basri),... -he counted 16 sahabi and tabi'i- used to do so in Musanaf abd-Araazaq and at-Tabari even 'Othman has been added to the list and in a Quote of al-Hassan even our Messenger (peace be upon him)).

وقال ابن المنذر : قال عمار بن أبى عمار : كان مسجد المهاجرين يسلمون تسليمة واحدة ، وكان مسجد الأنصار يسلمون تسليمتين

In the Maliki Madhab it is sufficient to say in the Tasleem "As-salamu alaykum", but for example if the Imam says only "salamu alaykum" this is a wrong Tasleem, this means only with the correctly pronounced words you end the prayer!

Muwatta al Imam Malik is considered as one of the highest Sahih Books. Imam Shafi-i said that it is the most authentic book after the Quran" (at that time the Sahih Books of Bukhari and Muslim didn't exist)

Read also this fatwa, according to this fatwa in Arabic the Muhajiroon used to perform one taslimah.

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I heard/learned as a kid you say tasleem to both sides. Your intention is for the angels knowingly on your shoulders the right side writing down your deeds and left side writing down your sins all in a book. I'd expect you're sending peace blessing and mercy to those angels on your shoulders.

I never heard of tasleem for the people around you, I mean what if you're alone? So that's why I think it's the first way.

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This answer would be much stronger if you provided any evidence that this is the Maliki procedure, since that's explicitly what the question is asking for. "I heard/learned as a kid" is a valid reference, but only if you know the people you heard/learned from were actually teaching according to the Maliki madh'hab. – goldPseudo Jul 17 '15 at 4:54

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