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  • What is Mubahala?
  • Is it permitted by the Sharee'ah?
  • What is evidence of using it, from Qur'an and authentic hadeeth?
  • What are the conditions associated with its permissible usage?
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2 Answers

up vote 3 down vote accepted

What is Al Mubahala?

Al Mubahala is the coming of a group, if they disagree upon something, and asking Allah to to put His curse on those among them who are unjust.

Is it permitted by the Sharee'ah?

Yes it is permitted.

What is evidence of using it, from Qur'an and authentic hadeeth?

The proof supporting comes from Ayatul Mubahala, in Surat AliImran Ayah 61:

فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَنِسَاءَنَا وَنِسَاءَكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وَأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَتَ اللَّـهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِينَ

Then whoever argues with you about it after [this] knowledge has come to you - say, "Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves, then supplicate earnestly [together] and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars [among us]."

The Ayah came down in regards of some christians from Najran.

What are the conditions associated with its permissible usage?

There are five terms/شروط:

  1. Sincerity in intention
  2. Knowledge؛ Before Mubahala, there must be discussion/dialog and debate, and there is no dialog or debate without knowledge, and a one with out knowledge will do more evil then good.
  3. That the one asking for Mubahala is of the good and righteous
  4. And as is clear from Ayatul Mubahala, it should not be unless the subject at hand is denied after clear cut/unquestionable proofs have been provided. And discussion/dialog and debate does not work, and the body is not taking back, and insisting on the body's opinion/thinking, only then it can be used.
  5. Al Mubahala should only be done in regards to something important in the deen.

Sources: Tafseer Ibn Katheer, Islam QA, and Atawheed Al Khalis

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(Shia Islam view )

What is Mubahala?

Mubahala means imprecation, or invoking the curse of Allah upon the liar.

What is evidence of using it, from Qur'an and authentic hadeeth?

Which took place in the 9th-10th year of Hijrah. In that year a delegation consisting of 14 Christian priests came from Najran to meet the Prophet (PBUH&HF). When they met the Prophet they asked him what is his opinion about Jesus (AS). The Messenger of Allah (PBUH&HF) said: "You may take rest today and you will receive the reply afterwards." The next day, 3 verses of Quran (3:59-61) about Jesus were revealed. When Christians did not accept the words of Allah, The Prophet recited the last revealed verse:

فَمَنْ حَاجَّكَ فِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْا نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءَنَا وَأَبْنَاءَكُمْ وَنِسَاءَنَا وَنِسَاءَكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وَأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَتَ اللَّـهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِينَ

But whoever disputes with you in this matter after what has come to you of knowledge, then say: Come let us call our sons and your sons, and our women and your women, and our selves and your selves; then let us be earnest in prayer and invoke the curse of Allah upon the liars. http://tanzil.net/#3:61

the world Nabtahil (the verb meaning we do Mubahala) in this verse has same rot of Mubahala and Mubahala is after this word in this verse.

In this way, the Prophet (PBUH&HF) challenged the Christians. The next day the Christian priests came out on one side of the field. Also on the other side, the Prophet came out of his house carrying al-Husain in his arm with al-Hasan walking along with him while he was holding his hand. Behind him was Fatimah al-Zahra, and behind her was Ali, peace be upon them all. When the Christians saw the five pure souls, and how determined the Prophet is in his idea that he put the closest people to him at risk, the Christians were terrified and abstained from the proposed malediction (Mubahala) and submitted to a treaty with the Prophet (PBUH&HF).

al-Suyuti who was a great Sunni scholar, wrote:

In the above verse (3:61), according to what Jabir Ibn Abdillah al-Ansari (the great companion of the Prophet) said, the word "sons" refers to al-Hasan and al-Husain, the word "women" refers to Fatimah, and the word "our selves" refer to the Prophet and Ali. Thus Ali is referred as "the self" of the Prophet (Nafs of the Prophet).

Reference: al-Durr al-Manthoor by al-Hafidh Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, v2, p38

Is it permitted by the Sharee'ah?

According to Shia Islam yes it is permitted. but it has some recommended conditions. it shoudld be used after debated and if other side insist on a false belief.

in a Hadith from Imam Sadiq a.s. is said:

if your dissenter did accept your truth words invite him to Mubahala ref: کلینی، الکافی، ج 2، ص 513.

What are the conditions associated with its permissible usage?

making himself pure of any evil morals for 3 days having sawm and Qusl for 3 days. going to deseart with who wants to do mubahala with him

The Incident of Mubahala

What are the conditions of Mubahla

it is interesting to mention a Karamah about Mubahala from Shaykh Murtaza Zahid (biography) a very pious scholar:

one day Shaykh Murtaza Zahid and a Jew were debating about Incident of Mubahala between prophet and Christians and Jew did not accept this Incident and insisted on his doubts about it. then Shaykh Murtaza Zahid says to him: you do not accept Mubahala is true? no problem I invite you to Mubahala to you see and believe: then Shaykh Murtaza Zahid entered his hand into fire of stove and said: OK you please also enter your hand in fire to we see words or who is truth if you are ensure about what you say. the Jews fared and left the meeting and never came back.

reference:

some of Keramat of Shaykh Murtaza Zahid

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keramat

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